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Phar52 Drugs Set 1

Nervous System (CNS)

QuestionAnswer
<pre> BZD Rx Only clonazepam Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizure/panic disorder Rx Only Klonopin CNS depressant / GABA agonist Benzodiazepine </pre>
<pre> Muscle relaxant Rx Only cyclobenzaprine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat muscle spasms Rx Only Flexeril Blocks nerve impulses Antispasmodic </pre>
<pre> Rx Only Cyanocobalamin Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Pernicious Anemia Dosage Form: Injection, Solution Increase Vitamin B12 absorption Vitamer B12 Family </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only Carbamazepine Cranial Nerve - V Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures / Trigeminal Neuralgia aka tic douloureux cn-V Tegretol Blocks Na+ channels AED/Analgesic
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-IV chloral hydrate Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat sleep disorders/insomnia C-IV "knock-out drops"/"Mickey Finn" in ETOH CNS depressant Historical Sedative/Hypnotic </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-IV meprobamate Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia (REM) C-IV Miltown CNS depressant Historical Sedative/Hypnotic </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-IV carisoprodol Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia (REM) C-IV Soma (prodrug of meprobamate) Caution: High addiction risk (euphoria) CNS depressant Historical Sedative/Hypnotic </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-IV thiopental Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia/general anesthesia C-IV Pentothal (ultrashort) IV dose form GABA agonist Barbiturate </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-IV methohexital Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia/general anesthesia C-IV Brevital (ultrashort) IV dose form GABA agonist Barbiturate </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-II pentobarbital Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia/general anesthesia C-II Nembutal (short-acting) GABA agonist Barbiturate </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-II secobarbital Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia/general anesthesia C-II Seconal (short-acting) GABA agonist Barbiturate </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-II amobarbital Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia/general anesthesia C-II Amytal (intermediate-acting) GABA agonist Barbiturate </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-II secobarbital + amobarbital Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia/general anesthesia C-II Tuinal GABA agonist Barbiturate </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-III butabarbital Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia/general anesthesia C-III Butisol (intermediate-acting) GABA agonist Barbiturate </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-IV (PB) phenobarbital Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia/epilepsy/anxiety C-IV Tramadol (long-acting) GABA agonist Barbiturate/AED </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-II to C-IV barbituates Generic Name </pre> <pre>Cautions: 1) Tolerance develops rapidly (due to liver enzyme induction) 2) Many drug interactions, Addiction is quick, Withdrawal is severe 3) Increases metabolism, Rebound nightmares, Suppresses REM sleep </pre>
<pre> Historical Sedative/Hypnotic C-II to C-IV barbituates Generic Name </pre> <pre>Cautions: 4) Drug-Automatism, Causes "hangover", Emotional depression 5) Rebound insomnia </pre>
<pre> BZD C-IV GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) benzodiazepines GABA: Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS Generic Name </pre> <pre> Advantages: All C-IV 1) Little REM suppression or hangover 2) Slower tolerance and addiction 3) No liver enzyme induction 4) Therapeutic Index is wide Caution: 1) May see disinhibition CNS depressant/GABA agonist azepam, azolam <
<pre> BZD C-IV GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) flurazepam GABA: Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety / insomnia C-IV Dalmane Long onset/duration; "active metabolites" Not recommended in elderly or renal DZ Active metabolites accumulate w/use CNS depressant/GABA agonist benzodiazepine </pre>
<pre> BZD C-IV GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) triazolam GABA: Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety / insomnia C-IV Halcion Short onset/duration Rebound insomnia can occur the same night Faster tolerance due to short half-life CNS depressant/GABA agonist benzodiazepine </pre>
<pre> BZD C-IV GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) lorazepam GABA: Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety / insomnia C-IV Ativan Intermediate half-life CNS depressant/GABA agonist benzodiazepine </pre>
<pre> BZD C-IV GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) temazepam GABA: Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS Generic Name </pre> <pre> Restoril Intermediate half-life Moderate accumulation, produces less daytime impairment Best suited for sleep-maintenance difficulties "Best" hypnotic for late-life insomnia CNS depressant/GABA agonist benzodiazepine </pre>
<pre> BZD C-IV GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) quazepam GABA: Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety / insomnia C-IV Doral "BZ-1 selective" (newer drug) Decreased effects on cognition/memory Longer half-life minimizes rebound insomnia CNS depressant/GABA agonist benzodiazepine </pre>
<pre> BZD C-IV GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) estazolam GABA: Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety / insomnia C-IV ProSom Intermediate half-life Newer drug Rapid onset CNS depressant/GABA agonist benzodiazepine </pre>
<pre> Non-benzo GABA agonist C-IV Non-benzo GABA agonist Generic Name </pre> <pre> Advantages: C-IV Less tolerance/dependence than BZD BZ-1 selective; not chemically related to BZD More sleep specific GABA agonists GABA agonist Non-benzo GABA agonist </pre>
<pre> Non-benzo GABA agonist C-IV zolpidem Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat short-term insomnia C-IV Ambien, Ambien CR Stay asleep longer: 7-8 hour duration Ambien FDA approved for short-term use only Ambien CR FDA pproved for chronic sleep GABA agonist Non-benzodiazepine Hypnotic </pre>
<pre> Non-benzo GABA agonist C-IV eszopiclone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat chronic sleep C-IV Lunesta Stay asleep longer: 7-8 hour duration FDA approved for chronic sleep GABA agonist Non-benzodiazepine Hypnotic </pre>
<pre> Non-benzo GABA agonist C-IV zaleplon Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat short-term insomnia C-IV Sonata Fall asleep faster: 4 hour duration Best for patients who have difficulty falling asleep GABA agonist Non-benzodiazepine Hypnotic </pre>
<pre> Pineal gland secretion OTC melatonin Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat "Jet Lag" OTC Adjusts sleep cycle Available as OTC dietary supplement Melatonin receptor agonist Oral Hypnotic </pre>
<pre> Pineal gland secretion Rx Only ramelteon Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat insomnia/trouble falling asleep Rx Only Rozerem Fall asleep faster Does not help stay asleep Not limited to short-term use Melatonin receptor agonist Oral Hypnotic </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous Hypnotic OTC diphenhydramine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat allergy symptoms/Parkinson's DZ/cause sedation/N/V OTC Benadryl Drugs that cause drowsiness as a side effect Blocks H1/H2 receptors Antihistamine </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous Hypnotic OTC Doxylamine Active ingredients found in cough/cold medicine Eg: Nyquil Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat allergy symptoms/insomnia/cause sedation OTC Unisom Blocks H1/H2 receptors Antihistamine </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous Hypnotic/TCA Rx Only doxepin 1st FDA approved anti-depressant for sleep Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/anxiety/insomnia Rx Only Silenor Sinequan contains same ingredients but older drug Not FDA approved for sleep Blocks H1/H2 receptor antagonist Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous Hypnotic/TCA Rx Only amitriptyline Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/anxiety/chronic pain/insomnia Rx Only Elavil SNRI reuptake inhibitor Tricyclic Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous Hypnotic Rx Only trazodone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/panic attacks/insomnia Rx Only Desyrel Off label use only Non-TCA, less anticholinergic action Fewer CV effects than TCA's SNRI reuptake inhibitor Non-TCA Hynotic </pre>
<pre> Neurotransmitter-Specific Effects: Potential consequences of enhancing activity of different neurotransmitters Serotonergic side effects </pre> <pre> 1) Sexual dysfunction 2) Weight gain w/long-term enhancement 3) Suppression of dopamine neurotransmission; decreased ability to experience pleasure, apathy, motivation, attention, cognitive slowing </pre>
<pre> Neurotransmitter-Specific Effects: Potential consequences of enhancing activity of different neurotransmitters Serotonergic side effects (cont) </pre> <pre> 4) GI upset 5) Sleep disturbance </pre>
<pre> Neurotransmitter-Specific Effects: Potential consequences of enhancing activity of different neurotransmitters NorAdrenergic side effects </pre> <pre> 1) Tremor 2) Tachycardia 3) Dry mouth 4) Insomnia </pre>
<pre> Neurotransmitter-Specific Effects: Potential consequences of enhancing activity of different neurotransmitters Dopaminergic side effects </pre> <pre> 1) Psychomotor activation 2) Aggravation of psychosis </pre>
<pre> Dopamine effects </pre> <pre> 1) Decreased ability to experience pleasure 2) Decreased motivation 3) Decreased attention 4) Slowing of Cognitive ability </pre>
<pre> Norepinephrine effects </pre> <pre> 1) Low energy 2) Lethargy 3) Decreased alertness </pre>
<pre> Serotonin effects </pre> <pre> 1) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 2) OCD </pre>
<pre> Serotonin neurotransmitter regulates: </pre> <pre> 1) Obsessions 2) Compulsions </pre>
<pre> Dopamine neurotransmitter regulates: </pre> <pre> 1) Attention 2) Motivation 3) Pleasure 4) Reward </pre>
<pre> Norepinephrine neurotransmitter regulates: </pre> <pre> 1) Alertness 2) Energy </pre>
<pre> MAOI Rx Only Mono-Amino Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors 1) Blocks MAO 2) Less destruction of serotonin and NE 3) More serotonin and NE in the synapse 4) Last choice for major depression Generic Name </pre> <pre> Caution: Rx Only 1) Do not mix w/other sympathomimetics (eg: pseudoephedrine) 2) Avoid Tyramine-containing foods (eg: cheeses, wines, fava beans) 3) Increased NE leads to HTN crisis, tachycardia, convulsions, stroke, death </pre>
<pre> TCA Rx Only Tricyclic Antidepressants 1) Chemically related to phenothiazines 2) Similar side effects: sedation, anticholinergic, dry mouth, increased HR Generic Name </pre> <pre> MOA: Rx Only 1) Block reuptake: Increases NE, 5-HT (serotonin) at receptors 2) Increase production/release: Increases NE, 5-HT (serotonin) at receptors 3) Sensitize receptors: Takes 3+ weeks to occur </pre>
<pre> TCA Rx Only Tricyclic Antidepressants (Kinetics) 1) Chemically related to phenothiazines 2) Similar side effects: sedation, anticholinergic, dry mouth, increased HR Generic Name </pre> <pre> Kinetics: Rx Only 1) PO drugs are Rx Only 2) Give routinely not PRN 3) Onset: several days to 3-4 weeks 4) Dose most TCA's at HS due to sedation </pre>
<pre> TCA Rx Only Tricyclic Antidepressants (Cautions) 1) Chemically related to phenothiazines 2) Similar side effects: sedation, anticholinergic, dry mouth, increased HR Generic Name </pre> <pre> Cautions: Rx Only 1) Decreases seizure threshold 2) Photosensitivity 3) Postural hypotension 4) Narrow TI: CV toxicity </pre>
<pre> TCA Rx Only amitriptyline Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/chronic pain/insomnia Rx Only Elavil Tertiary amine Most sedating; 1st generation SNRI reuptake inhibitor Tricyclic Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> TCA Rx Only amitriptyline / perphenazine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/chronic pain/insomnia Rx Only Triavil, Etrafon SNRI reuptake inhibitor Tricyclic Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> TCA Rx Only nortriptyline Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/chronic pain/insomnia Rx Only Aventyl, Pamelor Secondary amine Less sedation, 2nd generation SNRI reuptake inhibitor Tricyclic Antidepressant </pre>
TCA Rx Only imipramine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/chronic pain/insomnia Rx Only Tofranil Tertiary amine Also used to treat enuresis (bed-wetting) SNRI reuptake inhibitor Tricyclic Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> TCA Rx Only desipramine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/chronic pain/insomnia Rx Only Norpramin Secondary amine Also used to treat enuresis (bed-wetting) SNRI reuptake inhibitor Tricyclic Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> TCA-like Rx Only doxepin Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/insomnia Rx Only Sinequan Good anxiolytic activity SNRI reuptake inhibitor Tricyclic Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> TCA-like Rx Only doxepin (insomnia) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/insomnia Rx Only Silenor Low dose doxepin 3 or 6mg tablets FDA approved to treat chronic/transient insomnia SNRI reuptake inhibitor Tricyclic Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> TCA-like Rx Only doxepin (pruritus) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/insomnia Rx Only Zonalon Cream FDA approved to treat pruritis SNRI reuptake inhibitor Tricyclic Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Generic Name </pre> <pre> MOA: Rx Only 1) Blocks reuptake of serotonin 2) Increases stimulation of receptors 3) Little effect on norepinephrine levels </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (Indications) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Indications of Use: Rx Only 1) Endogenous depression 2) OCD 3) Panic disorders, Social anxiety disorder 4) Eating disorders, obesity, bulimia </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (Cautions) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Cautions/Side-Effects: Rx Only 1) Very little sedation (dose in AM except paroxetine taken at HS sedation) 2) Very little anticholinergic effect 3) No orthostatic hypotension but causes sexual dysfunction, gynecomastia </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only fluoxetine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/OCD/PMDD/Bulimia Rx Only Prozac SSRI reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only fluoxetine (PMDD) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/OCD/PMDD/Bulimia Rx Only Serafem Treat PMDD (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder) SSRI reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only fluoxetine w/ olanzapine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/OCD/PMDD/Bulimia Rx Only Symbyax Treat Bipolar Depression Less risk of switching to mania phase SSRI reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only paroxetine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/OCD/PMDD/Bulimia Rx Only Paxil, Paxil CR, Pexeva Dose at HS due to sedation SSRI reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only sertraline Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/OCD/PMDD/Bulimia Rx Only Zoloft SSRI reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only citalopram Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/OCD/PMDD/Bulimia Rx Only Celexa SSRI reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only escitalopram Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/OCD/PMDD/Bulimia Rx Only Lexapro Isomer of Celexa SSRI reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SNRI Rx Only Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors Generic Name </pre> <pre> MOA: Rx Only 1) Blocks reuptake of both serotonin and NE 2) Like TCA's but w/fewer side effects </pre>
<pre> SNRI Rx Only venlafaxine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/anxiety/panic disorder/ADHD Rx Only Effexor, Effexor XR SNRI reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SNRI Rx Only desvenlafaxine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/anxiety/panic disorder Rx Only Pristiq SNRI reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SNRI Rx Only duloxetine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/anxiety/panic disorder Rx Only Cymbalta Also FDA approved to Tx diabetic neuropathic pain SNRI reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> a-2 Receptor Antagonist Rx Only mirtazapine Tetracyclic agent, net effect increases NE, 5-HT1a activity Ideal for patients w/depression accompanied w/ insomnia / weight loss Generic Name </pre> <pre>Treat depression Rx Only Remeron Also acts as a potent antihistamine due to sedation Off-Label use for sleep and appetite simulant in elderly a-2 Receptor Antagonist Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> Dopamine Reuptake Blockers Rx Only bupropion Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/SAD/ADHD Rx Only Wellbutrin Seizure risk: Dose related: dose TID May cause agitation/insomnia; take last does no later than 4-5 pm May cause weight loss Dopamine Reuptake Blockers Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> Dopamine Reuptake Blockers Rx Only bupropion (smoking cessation) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/SAD/smoking cessation Rx Only Zyban Smoking cessation Dopamine Reuptake Blockers Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> Dopamine Reuptake Blockers Rx Only bupropion (Caution) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/SAD/smoking cessation Rx Only Zyban Wellbutrin SR: dose BID Wellbutrin XL: dose QD Dopamine Reuptake Blockers Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous Antidepressants Rx Only trazodone Dividose: 150mg tablet can be broken into 50mg or 75mg doses Allows titration of dose w/o using multiple strengths Give HS dose w/food Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression Rx Only Desyrel More commonly: Off-Label to Tx insomnia due to sedation Drug-induced priapism (painful erection > 6 hrs) Serotonin reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous Antidepressants Rx Only trazodone (XR) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression Rx Only Oleptro Extended Release trazodone, QD daily dosing Both rapid/sustained release maintaining blood levels w/therapeutic range 24 hrs Serotonin reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous Antidepressants Rx Only nefazodone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression Rx Only Serzone Trade no longer available Black Box Warning: hepatotoxic Serotonin reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> TCA Rx Only clomipramine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/OCD Rx Only Anafranil Increases serotonin Serotonin reuptake inhibitor Tricyclic Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only fluvoxamine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/OCD Rx Only Luvox, Luvox ER Increases serotonin Selective-Serotonin reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </pre>
<pre> SSRI Rx Only fluvoxamine (other indications) Also used: Prozac, Paxil, other SSRI's Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat depression/OCD Rx Only Luvox, Luvox ER "atypical" anti-psychotics (eg: olanzapine, quetiapine, risperdone) Useful as adjuncts to SSRI in treatment resistant OCD Selective-Serotonin reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant </p
<pre> Chemical compound lithium, carbon, oxygen Rx Only Lithium carbonate Narrow TI: side effects relate to blood levels Toxicity increases when Na+ levels decrease OD: arrhythmia leads to CV collapse > death Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat mania/bipolar Rx Only Eskalith, Lithobid Inhibits nerve conduction by substituting for Na+ Decreases NE release, Increased NE reuptake Nerve conduction (Na+) inhibitor Antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> Chemical compound lithium, carbon, oxygen Rx Only Lithium carbonate (Cautions) Narrow TI: side effects relate to blood levels Toxicity increases when Na+ levels decrease OD: arrhythmia leads to CV collapse > death Generic Name <pre> Treat mania/bipolar Rx Only 1) Do not restrict Na (salt intake) 2) Do not drink excessive water (forces salt out of system) Nerve conduction (Na+) inhibitor Antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> Alternate drugs for Mania Rx Only divalproex sodium aka valproic acid Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures/mania Rx Only Depakote GABA antagonist Antiepileptic </pre>
<pre> Alternate drugs for Mania Rx Only carbamazepine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures/Trigeminal Neuralgia/mania Rx Only Tegretol, Equetro Na+ channel inhibitor Antiepileptic </pre>
<pre> Alternate drugs for Mania Rx Only lamotrigine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures/mania Rx Only Lamictal Caution: potentially life-threatening rash (Steven's Johnson Syndrome) Cell death causes dermis to separate from epidermis Na+ channel inhibitor Antiepileptic </pre>
<pre> Alternate drugs for Mania Rx Only olanzapine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar disorder/mania Rx Only Zyprexa Na+ channel inhibitor Atypical Antipsychotics </pre>
<pre> Alternate drugs for Mania Rx Only risperidone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar disorder/mania Rx Only Risperdal Na+ channel inhibitor Atypical Antipsychotics </pre>
<pre> Alternate drugs for Mania Rx Only ziprasidone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar disorder/mania Rx Only Geodon Na+ channel inhibitor Atypical Antipsychotics </pre>
<pre> Alternate drugs for Mania Rx Only aripiprazole Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar disorder/mania Rx Only Abilify Na+ channel inhibitor Atypical Antipsychotics </pre>
<pre> Alternate drugs for Mania Rx Only asenapine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar disorder/mania Rx Only Saphris Na+ channel inhibitor Atypical Antipsychotics </pre>
<pre> Major tranquilizer Rx Only antipsychotics (MOA) aka Major Tranquilizers Generic Name </pre> <pre> MOA: Rx Only 1) Antidopaminergic: blocks or reduces dopamine 2) Acts in the limbic system (feelings, emotions) </pre>
<pre> Major tranquilizer Rx Only antipsychotics (Therapeutic Effects) aka Major Tranquilizers Controls severe agitation Needs "informed consent" to use in SNF's Generic Name </pre> <pre> Therapeutic Effects: Rx Only 1) Calms patient w/o hynotic effect, does not put to sleep 2) Decreases irrational thought precesses 3) Allows patient to resume a "normal" life </pre>
<pre> Major tranquilizer Rx Only antipsychotics (Side Effects) aka Major Tranquilizers Lack of secretion, dry eyes, mouth, Constipation, Retention Urination Generic Name </pre> <pre> Side Effects: Rx Only 1) Tardive dyskinesia "zombie" from decreased dopamine 2) Apathy: loss of feeling 3) EPS: dystonia (involuntary muscle movement), akathisia (inner restlessness) 4) Postural Hypotension </pre>
<pre> Major tranquilizer Rx Only antipsychotics (Side Effects) cont aka Major Tranquilizers Lack of secretion, dry eyes, mouth, Constipation, Retention Urination Generic Name </pre> <pre> Side Effects: Rx Only 5) Anticholinergic 6) Dysphoria: low "feeling" unhappy 7) Decreased seizure threshold > convulsions 8) No addiction </pre>
<pre> Phenothiazine Rx Only fluphenazine decanoate Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia Rx Only Prolixin Q4+week Blocks D1/D2 receptors antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> atypical antipsychotic Rx Only risperidone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar mania/autism Rx Only Risperdal Consta Q2 week Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors atypical antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> Phenothiazines/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only chlorpromazine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/N/V/severe pain/anxiety Rx Only Thorazine Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> Phenothiazines/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only thioridazine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/N/V/severe pain/anxiety Rx Only Mellaril Least risk of EPS Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> Phenothiazines/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only fluphenazine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/N/V/severe pain/anxiety Rx Only Prolixin Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> Phenothiazines/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only trifluoperazine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/N/V/severe pain/anxiety Rx Only Stelazine Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> Phenothiazines/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only perphenazine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/N/V/severe pain/anxiety Rx Only Trilafon (in amytriptiline=Triavil) Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> antipsychotic/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only phenothiazines Generic Name </pre> <pre> Cross-allergenicity: Rx Only 1) Allergic to 1 drug in phenothiazine class, then allergic to all 2) Screen for same chemical class/group </pre>
<pre> antipsychotic/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only phenothiazines (Cautions) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Caution: Rx Only 1) Photo-sensitivity (sun sensitivity) > skin turns violet, dark grey 2) Use SPF sun tan lotion/sunscreen 3) Hypothermia: always cold (negative side-effect) </pre>
<pre> antipsychotic/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only Non-penothiazine antipsychotics (MOA) Generic Name </pre> <pre> MOA: Rx Only 1) Antidopaminergic 2) Risk of EPS (like Parkinson's DZ) </pre>
<pre> antipsychotic/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only heloperidol Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/symptoms of Tourette's disorder Rx Only Haldol (older drug) Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors Non-phenothiazine antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> antipsychotic/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only thiothixene Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/symptoms of Tourette's disorder Rx Only Navane Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors Non-phenothiazine antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> antipsychotic/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only loxapine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/symptoms of Tourette's disorder Rx Only Loxitane Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors Non-phenothiazine antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> antipsychotic/AED/anxiolytic Rx Only pimozide Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/symptoms of Tourette's disorder Rx Only Orap (DOC for Tourette's Syndrome) Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors Non-phenothiazine antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotics (MOA) Rx Only Increases risk of metabolic complications: 1) obesity 2) diabetes: increased bs > hyperglycemia > increased A1c 3) dyslipidemias: increased blood cholesterol > increased lipid/fat </pre> <pre> MOA: Rx Only 1) Blocks both dopamine and serotonin receptors 2) Decreases risk of EPS: fewer movement disorders </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotics (Caution) Rx Only Increases risk of metabolic complications: 1) obesity 2) diabetes: increased bs > hyperglycemia > increased A1c 3) dyslipidemias: increased blood cholesterol > increased lipid/fat </pre> <pre> Black Box Warning: Rx Only 1) May increase risk of stroke (CVI) 2) Caution in elderly dementia patients </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only risperidone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar/autism Rx Only Risperdal Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors "Atypical" antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only risperidone (depo form) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar/autism Rx Only Risperdal Consta Depo form: longer-acting IM q2 weeks Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors "Atypical" antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only risperidone (ODT form) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar/autism Rx Only Risperdal M-tab ODT (orally dissolving) To promote compliance Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors "Atypical" antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only paliperidone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar/autism Rx Only Invega Extended Release PO Active metabolite of risperidone Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors "Atypical" antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only olanzapine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar/autism Rx Only Zyprexa PO form and IM form Also used for CINV (chemo induced) Blocks dopamine/5-HT3 to Tx bipolar mania Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors "Atypical" antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only Olanzapine w/ fluoxetine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar/autism Rx Only Symbyax fluoxetine=Prozac: SSRI to Tx depression Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors "Atypical" antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only quetiapine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar/autism Rx Only Seroquel PO form only Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors "Atypical" antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only ziprasidone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar/autism Rx Only Geodon PO form and IM form Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors "Atypical" antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only aripiprazole Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar/autism Rx Only Abilify Not a PPI inhibitor "dopamine system stabilizer" Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors "Atypical" antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only asenapine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia/bipolar/autism Rx Only Saphris Sublingual form NPO 10 minutes post dose Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptors "Atypical" antipsychotic </pre>
<pre> "Atypical" antipsychotic Rx Only clozapine Black Box Warning: Causes Agranulocytosis: Drop in white blood cell count Week supply at a time until stabilized (7-14 days maximum Rx order) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat schizophrenia Rx Only Clozaril Patient must be registered in drug program Patient needs CBC test done every week Labs must be documented (WBC/ANC) w/each fill Blocks D2/S2/a2 receptor "Atypical" antipsychotic
<pre> Increase Ach in CNS Rx Only tacrine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat mild to moderate AD Rx Only Cognex ("cognition") QID ac Black Box Warning: hepatotoxic cholinesterase inhibitors anticholinergic </pre>
<pre> Increase Ach in CNS Rx Only tacrine=Cognex (side effects) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat mild to moderate AD Rx Only Side Effects: 1) diarrhea: increased preistalsis 2) drooling: increased salivation 3) pee more: increased urinary urgency 4) bronchiospasms cholinesterase inhibitors anticholinergic </pre>
<pre> Increase Ach in CNS Rx Only donepezil Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat mild to moderate AD Rx Only Aricept, Aricept ODT QD at HS More selctive for CNS, works in brain not in tissue Many drug interactions cholinesterase inhibitors anticholinergic </pre>
<pre> Increase Ach in CNS Rx Only glantamine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat mild to moderate AD Rx Only Razadyne BID c food cholinesterase inhibitors anticholinergic </pre>
<pre> Increase Ach in CNS Rx Only Glantamine (Extended Release) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat mild to moderate AD Rx Only Razadyne ER (formerly Reminyl) QD (longer-lasting) cholinesterase inhibitors anticholinergic </pre>
<pre> Increase Ach in CNS Rx Only rivastigmine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat mild to moderate AD Rx Only Exelon BID c food Most severe N/V: titrate dose up New form: Transdermal Patch QD less N/V cholinesterase inhibitors anticholinergic </pre>
<pre> Increase Ach in CNS Rx Only memantine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat moderate to severe AD Rx Only Namenda Reduces nerve damage Combo therapy Fewer side effects NMDA blocker anticholinergic </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulants (MOA) Rx Only Physiologic Effects: 1) Increased physiological processes (HR, BP, etc.) 2) Increased metabolism (weight loss) 3) Alertness (may cause insomnia) 4) Anorexia (loss of appetite) </pre> <pre> MOA: Rx Only 1) Block reuptake of NE / dopamine Cautions: 1) Do not combine CNS simulants 2) Do not take w/other sympathomimetics (eg: Sudafed) </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulants (Therapeutic Uses) Rx Only Physiologic Effects: 1) Increased physiological processes (HR, BP, etc.) 2) Increased metabolism (weight loss) 3) Alertness (may cause insomnia) 4) Anorexia (loss of appetite) </pre> <pre> Therapeutic Uses: Rx Only 1) Narcolepsy: cannot stay awake (lethargic, sleepy) 2) ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) 3) NE regulates attention, impulsivity, activity 4) Adult ADHD has less hyperactivity </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulants (Off-Label Uses) Rx Only Physiologic Effects: 1) Increased physiological processes (HR, BP, etc.) 2) Increased metabolism (weight loss) 3) Alertness (may cause insomnia) 4) Anorexia (loss of appetite) </pre> <pre> Off-Label Uses: Rx Only 1) Increase BMR 2) obesity 3) depression (from lack of energy, motivation) 4) "Lifestyle" drugs: "High", studying, partying </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant C-II dextroamphetamine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD/narcolepsy C-II Dexedrine Block NE/dopamine reuptake amphetamines </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant C-II methamphetamine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD/narcolepsy C-II Desoxyn Block NE/dopamine reuptake amphetamines </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant C-II Amphetamine/dextroamphetamine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD/narcolepsy C-II Adderall Adderall XR: extended release QD BID dosing: Need it only during school, AM and noon, M-F Drug holidays recommended for summer Block NE/dopamine reuptake amphetamines </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant C-II lisdexamphetamine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD/narcolepsy C-II Vyvanse (prodrug) Block NE/dopamine reuptake amphetamines </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulants C-II amphetamines (Side Effects) May produce extreme tolerance and addiction Highest scheduled drug Generic Name </pre> <pre> Side Effects: C-II 1) Hypertension, tachycardia, angina 2) CV problems 3) Weight loss, anorexia </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulants C-II amphetamines (Acute Toxicity) May produce extreme tolerance and addiction Highest scheduled drug Generic Name </pre> <pre> Acute Toxicity: C-II 1) Death, CVA (stroke), MI (heart attack) 2) Arrhythmia </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant C-II methylphenidate Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD/narcolepsy C-II Ritalin, Concerta Block NE/dopamine reuptake Non-amphetamines </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant C-II methylphenidate (patch) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD/narcolepsy C-II Daytrana Patch Wear for 9 hours QD during schooltime Block NE/dopamine reuptake Non-amphetamines </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant C-II dexmethylphenidate Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD/narcolepsy C-II Focalin Focalin XR: isomer Block NE/dopamine reuptake Non-amphetamines </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant C-IV modafinil Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD/narcolepsy C-IV Provigil, Sparlon Tx: narcolepsy Block NE/dopamine reuptake Non-amphetamines </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant C-IV armodafinil Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD/narcolepsy C-IV Nuvigil Isomer used to Tx: narcolepsy Block NE/dopamine reuptake Non-amphetamines </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant C-II cocaine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Used as Vasoconstrictor/local anesthetic C-II FDA approval for use only in hospitals C-I has not medicinal use, white powder, street drug Block NE/dopamine reuptake Non-amphetamines </pre>
<pre> CNS stimulant OTC caffeine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Used as Vasoconstrictor/local anesthetic OTC xanthine Found in cola and tea Also in form: caffeine tablets Block NE/dopamine reuptake Non-amphetamines </pre>
<pre> Non-stimulants for ADHD Rx Only amotoxetine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD Rx Only Strattera Not a controlled substance May increase BP and HR Less addiction potential than scheduled CNS stimulants SNRI inhibitor/blocker SNRI non-stimulant </pre>
<pre> Non-stimulants for ADHD Rx Only guanfacine Extended-Release Controls attention Controls impulsivity Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat ADHD Rx Only Intuniv Not a controlled substance Centrally acting A2-receptor agonist Adrenergic non-stimulant </pre>
<pre> Non-stimulants for ADHD Rx Only guanfacine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat hypertension HTN Rx Only Tenex Do not take w/grapefruit juice Do not abruptly stop medication > due to HTN rebound A2 adrenergic receptor agonist Antihypertensive </pre>
<pre> CNS depressants/anticonvulsants Rx Only Antiepileptic AED (MOA) epilepsy / seizure Generic Name </pre> <pre> MOA: Rx Only 1) Supresses electricity in the brain 2) Decreases excitability of brain cells 3) Decreases spread of abnormal brain waves 4) Decreases risk of seizures </pre>
<pre> CNS depressants/anticonvulsants Rx Only Antiepileptic AED (Side Effects) epilepsy / seizure Generic Name </pre> <pre> Side Effects: Rx Only 1) drowsiness 2) ataxia: lack or coordination, order </pre>
<pre> CNS depressants/anticonvulsants Rx Only Antiepileptic AED (Caution) epilepsy / seizure Generic Name </pre> <pre> Caution: Rx Only 1) Check for FDA approved AB-Rated drugs, same TI 2) Often use adjunctive therapy </pre>
<pre> Barbiturate/CNS depressant/anticonvulsant C-IV phenobarbital PB long-acting Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat or prevent seizures C-IV Luminal PO prophylaxis (eclampsia: hypertension during pregnancy) IV Tx: Status Epilepticus: seizures >= 30 minutes GABA agonist Antiepileptic AED </pre>
<pre> Barbiturate/CNS depressant/anticonvulsant C-IV mephenobarbital long-acting Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat or prevent seizures C-IV Mebaral Barbiturate derivative Off-label use for tremors GABA agonist Antiepileptic AED </pre>
<pre> Barbiturate/CNS depressant/anticonvulsant C-IV primidone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat or prevent seizures C-IV Mysoline Barbiturate derivative GABA agonist Antiepileptic AED </pre>
<pre> Hydantoins/CNS depressant/anticonvulsant Rx Only phenytoin Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat tonic-clonic(grand mal)/partial seizures Rx Only Dilantin DPH PO drug Na+ channel blocker Antiepileptic AED </pre>
<pre> Hydantoins/CNS depressant/anticonvulsant Rx Only fosphenytoin (IV form) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat tonic-clonic(grand mal)/partial seizures Rx Only Cerebyx IV form, prodrug: converted to phenytoin after metabolism Injectable only Na+ channel blocker Antiepileptic AED </pre>
<pre> AED/CNS depressants/anticonvulsants Rx Only hydantoins (Side Effects) epilepsy / seizure Generic Name </pre> <pre> Side Effects: Rx Only 1) Little sedation 2) Gingival Hyperplasia </pre>
<pre> AED/CNS depressants/anticonvulsants Rx Only hydantoins (Toxic Effects) epilepsy / seizure Generic Name </pre> <pre> Toxic Effects: Rx Only 1) Ataxia: Lack of coordination 2) Nystagmus: Jittering of eyes, eyes move back and forth </pre>
<pre> AED/CNS depressants/anticonvulsants Rx Only hydantoins (Dosing) epilepsy / seizure Generic Name </pre> pre> phenytoin Dosing: Rx Only 1) Based on bioavailability (rate / extent of absorption) 2) Different forms: "prompt" TID and "extended" QD </pre>
<pre> succinimides/anticonvulsant Rx Only ethosuximide (DOC) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat and prevent absence spells/petit mal seizures Rx Only Zarontin motor cortex blocker Antiepileptic AED </pre>
<pre> succinimides/anticonvulsant Rx Only methsuximide Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat and prevent absence spells/petit mal seizures Rx Only Celontin motor cortex blocker Antiepileptic AED </pre>
<pre> BZD/CNS depressant C-IV clonazepam Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures/panic disorders C-IV Klonopin GABA agonist benzodiazepine/AED </pre>
<pre> BZD/CNS depressant C-IV lorazepam Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures/panic disorders C-IV Ativan Injectable form: store in refridgerator In ER, DOC to Tx Status Epilepticus GABA agonist benzodiazepine/AED </pre>
<pre> BZD/CNS depressant C-IV diazepam Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures/panic disorders C-IV Valium In ambulance, DOC to Tx Status Epilepticus GABA agonist benzodiazepine/AED </pre>
<pre> BZD/CNS depressant C-IV clorazepate Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures/panic disorders C-IV Tranxene GABA agonist benzodiazepine/AED </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only Carbamazepine Cranial Nerve - V Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures/Trigeminal Neuralgia Rx Only Tegretol Side Effects: bone marrow suppression (Aplastic Anemia) May see increase in moood and alertness or mental disturbance Na+ channel blocker AED/analgesic </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only carbamazepine (ER) Cranial Nerve - V Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures/Trigeminal Neuralgia/acute bipolar mania Rx Only Equetro Extended Release carbamazepine Also to Tx Acute Bipolar Mania Na+ channel blocker AED/analgesic </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only oxcarbazepine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizures/Trigeminal Neuralgia/acute bipolar mania Rx Only Trileptal Newer form of Tegretol Lesser side effects Na+ channel blocker AED/analgesic </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only valproic acid Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizure disorders Rx Only Depakene, Depacon IV Delayed form: Stavzor GABA inhibitor anticonvulsant/AED </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only divalproex sodium Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizure disorders/prevent migraine HA/bipolar Rx Only Depakote, Depakote ER (migraine HA) Caution: hepatotoxic > monitor LFT's Take w/food to decrease GI distress > prevent nausea GABA agonist anticonvulsant/AED </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only gabapentin Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizure/nerve pain (herpes zoster infection) Rx Only Neurontin Dose TID (max interval - q 12 h) Also used to Tx neuropathic pain GABA agonist anticonvulsant/AED </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only lamotrigine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizure/bipolar Rx Only Lamictal May cause Steven's Johnson (severe rash) > eats into tissue > necrosis Also used to Tx bipolar disorder Na+ channel blocker anticonvulsant/AED </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only topiramate Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat seizure/migraine prophylaxis Rx Only Topamax May cause loss of appetite Also used to Tx migraine w/low dose Prevent migraine headaches Na+ channel blocker/GABA agonist anticonvulsant/AED </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only tiagabine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat partial seizure Rx Only Gabitril Tx for patients 12 years or older for partial seizures May cause new seizures Selective GABA reuptake inhibitor anticonvulsant/AED </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only levetiracetam Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat partial-onset seizure Rx Only Keppra Minimum drug interactions Selective GABA reuptake inhibitor anticonvulsant/AED </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only zonisamide Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat partial seizure Rx Only Zonegran Caution: Sulfa drug: causes Oligohidrosis Oligohidrosis: Condition of few/little sweating Na+ channel blocker Sulfonamide/anticonvulsant/AED </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED C-V pregabalin Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat partial seizure/anxiety/nerve pain C-V Lyrica "Son of Gabapentin" may cause euphoria > addiction Tx neuralgia/neurpathic pain GABA agonist anticonvulsant/AED </pre>
<pre> Miscellaneous AED Rx Only felbamate FDA: D/C unless benefit >>> than risks Last DOC > only if other AED did not work Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat partial seizure Rx Only Felbatol Black Box Warning: significant risk of the following: Aplastic Anemia: bone marrow suppression > abnormal white blood cells Acute liver failure NMDA antagonist anticonvulsant/AED
<pre> AED/CNS depressants/anticonvulsants Rx Only Antiepileptic (other Indication) 1) intractable pain, diabetic neuropathy 2) Shingles (post hepatic neuralgia) 3) Insomnia epilepsy / seizure Generic Name </pre> <pre> Other Indication of Uses: Rx Only 1) Migraine HA (headaches) prophylaxis (prevention) 2) Bipolar disorder (mania) 3) Neuropathic pain 4) Trigeminal Neuralgia (Bell's Palsy -cn-V) </pre>
<pre> Migraine HA Rx Only Analgesic/Migraine Prophylaxis (Sx) Migraine headache/"vascular" headache Generic Name </pre> <pre> Symptoms: Rx Only 1) Cerebral vasoconstriction > aura: sensation, sights, smells 2) Rebound > cerebral vasodilation > throbbing pain 3) N/V, sensitivity/intolerance to light/noise 4) Irritable </pre>
<pre> Migraine Headache Rx Only Ergot alkaloid Rarely used currently Strong vasoconstrictors > hypertension Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only Ergomar (SL) Sublingual form Must take drug holiday a1 selective adrenergic agonist Vasoconstrictor/analgesic/sympatholytic </pre>
<pre> Migraine Headache Rx Only ergot alkaloid (injection) Rarely used currently Strong vasoconstrictors > hypertension Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only DHE-45 (injection) Injection form Must take drug holiday a1 selective adrenergic agonist Vasoconstrictor/analgesic/sympatholytic </pre>
<pre> Migraine Headache Rx Only ergot alkaloid (nasal spray) Rarely used currently Strong vasoconstrictors > hypertension Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only Migranal (nasal spray) Nasal Spray form Must take drug holiday a1 selective adrenergic agonist Vasoconstrictor/analgesic/sympatholytic </pre>
<pre> Migraine Headache C-IV isometheptene/dichloraphenazone/APAP vasoconstrictor/sedative/analgesic Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache C-IV Midrin a1 selective adrenergic agonist Vasoconstrictor/analgesic/sympatholytic </pre>
<pre> Migraine Headache OTC ASA / APAP / caffeine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache OTC Excedrin Migraine Dose: 2 tabs q 24 h Dose Excedrin Regular: 2 tabs q 6 h Vasoconstrictor: increases BP, HR, etc. a1 selective adrenergic agonist Vasoconstrictor/analgesic/sympatholytic
<pre> Acute Migraine HA Rx Only serotonin 5-HT1 agonists (dose) Cautions: May increase BP Angina (chest pain) MI / CVA risk Migraine headache/"vascular" headache Generic Name </pre> <pre> Dosing: Rx Only 1) PO 2) ODT (Orally Dissolving Tablet) for N/V 3) Injectable (auto-injector): self-administration 4) Nasal spray: self-administration </pre>
<pre> Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only sumatriptan Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only Imitrex, Sumavel Sumavel: oldest drug Prevent vasodilation/induce vasoconstriction serotonin 5-HT1 agonists </pre>
<pre> Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only zolmitriptan Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only Zomig Prevent vasodilation/induce vasoconstriction serotonin 5-HT1 agonists </pre>
<pre> Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only rizatriptan Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only Maxalt Prevent vasodilation/induce vasoconstriction serotonin 5-HT1 agonists </pre>
<pre> Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only naratriptan Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only Amerge Prevent vasodilation/induce vasoconstriction serotonin 5-HT1 agonists </pre>
<pre> Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only almotriptan Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only Axert Prevent vasodilation/induce vasoconstriction serotonin 5-HT1 agonists </pre>
<pre> Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only frovatriptan Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only Frova Prevent vasodilation/induce vasoconstriction serotonin 5-HT1 agonists </pre>
<pre> Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only eletriptan Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Acute Migraine Headache Rx Only Relpax Prevent vasodilation/induce vasoconstriction serotonin 5-HT1 agonists </pre>
<pre> Migraine Prophylaxis Rx Only propranolol Take routingely Identify > eliminate "triggers" (eg: chocolate, sun) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Prevent Migraine Prophylaxis/treat hypertension/angina Rx Only Inderal Longer-acting Beta blockers vasodilator/antihypertensive/adrenergic </pre>
<pre> Migraine Prophylaxis Rx Only nadolol Take routingely Identify > eliminate "triggers" (eg: chocolate, sun) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Prevent Migraine Prophylaxis/treat hypertension/angina Rx Only Corgard Beta blockers vasodilator/antihypertensive/adrenergic </pre>
<pre> Migraine Prophylaxis Rx Only timolol Take routingely Identify > eliminate "triggers" (eg: chocolate, sun) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Prevent Migraine Prophylaxis/treat hypertension/angina Rx Only Blocadren Beta blockers vasodilator/antihypertensive/adrenergic </pre>
<pre> Migraine Prophylaxis Rx Only lisinopril Take routingely Identify > eliminate "triggers" (eg: chocolate, sun) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Prevent Migraine Prophylaxis/treat hypertension/angina Rx Only Prinivil, Zestril Ace inhibitor cardiotonic/antihypertensive/adrenergic </pre>
<pre> Migraine Prophylaxis/AED Rx Only Divalproex sodium Take routingely Identify > eliminate "triggers" (eg: chocolate, sun) Generic Name </pre> <pre> Prevent Migraine Prophylaxis/seizure/mania Rx Only Depakote ER Extended Release: QD dosing Not generically equivalent to Depakote Na+ channel blocker/GABA agonist antiepileptic/anticonvulsant/adrenergic </pre
<pre> antidopaminergic drugs/antiemetics Rx Only drug-induced EPS (Parkinson's DZ) EPS (Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms) Generic Name </pre> <pre> antidopaminergic drugs: Rx Only 1) Phenothiazine (eg: Thorazine) 2) Other major tranquilizers (eg: Haldol) 3) Some antiemetics (eg: Reglan) > prokinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only levodopa Disorder: dopamine < ACh L-dopa has limited span of activity > becomes ineffective Goal: Delay using L-dopa, use other drugs first Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only L-dopa Crosses blood-brain barrier > converted to dopamine Side effect: N/V Increase dopamine levels dopamine agent/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only levodopa/carbidopa Disorder: dopamine < ACh L-dopa has limited span of activity > becomes ineffective Goal: Delay using L-dopa, use other drugs first Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Sinemet Prevents peripheral conversion of levodopa Less levodopa > less N/V Increase dopamine levels dopamine agent/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only carbidopa Disorder: dopamine < ACh L-dopa has limited span of activity > becomes ineffective Goal: Delay using L-dopa, use other drugs first Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Parcopa ODT ODT form: carbidopa Prevents peripheral conversion of levodopa Less levodopa > less N/V Increase dopamine levels dopamine agent/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only pergolide Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Permax Causes heart valve damage > taken off the market mimic dopamine at receptors dopamine agonist/antidyskinetic </pre>
pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only amantadine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS/viral infection Rx Only Symmetrel Also used to Tx viral infections Also used to Tx influenza mimic dopamine at receptors dopamine agonist/antiviral/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only bromocriptine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Parlodel mimic dopamine at receptors dopamine agonist/antiviral/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only pramipexole Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Mirapex Second generation mimic dopamine at receptors dopamine agonist/antiviral/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only ropinirole Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Requip Second generation Also used to Tx RLS (Restless Leg Syndrome) mimic dopamine at receptors dopamine agonist/antiviral/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS/CNS depressant Rx Only apomorphine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS/severe pain Rx Only Apokyn Injectable "rescue" Tx SQ prn up to 5 x d mimic dopamine at receptors dopamine agonist/analgesic/narcotic/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS/MAOI (Manoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) Rx Only Selegiline aka Deprenyl (zelapar ODT) stimulant: metabolites are amphetamine-like > insomnia Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS/depression Rx Only Eldepryl BID dosing: AM and Noon increase dopamine by preventing metabolism dopamine agonist/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS/MAOI (Manoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) Rx Only rasagiline stimulant: metabolites are amphetamine-like > insomnia Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS/depression Rx Only Azilect Many drug/food interactions w/ Manoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) May cause hypertensive crisis increase dopamine by preventing metabolism dopamine agonist/antidyskinetic
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS/COMT inhibitor Rx Only tolcapone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Tasmar catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitor (COMT) COMT inhibitor antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS/COMT inhibitor Rx Only entacapone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Comtan catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitor (COMT) COMT inhibitor antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS/COMT inhibitor Rx Only entacapone/levodopa/carbidopa Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Stalevo catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitor (COMT) COMT inhibitor antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS/Ach blocker Rx Only benztropine Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Cogentin Less effective than dopamine Used to Tx EPS Synthetic, fewer side effects than antispasmodics (belladonna alkaloids) ACh blocker anticholinergic/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> Parkinson's DZ/EPS/Ach blocker Rx Only trihexyphenidyl Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat Parkinson's DZ/EPS Rx Only Artane Less effective than dopamine Used to Tx EPS Synthetic, fewer side effects than antispasmodics (belladonna alkaloids) ACh blocker anticholinergic/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> benzodiazepine/anxiolytic C-IV diazepam Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety/seizure/insomnia/ETOH withdrawal/muscle spasms C-IV Valium CNS depressant/GABA agonist anxiolytic/AED/sedative/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> benzodiazepine/anxiolytic C-IV chlordiazepoxide Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety/seizure/insomnia/ETOH withdrawal/muscle spasms C-IV Librium CNS depressant/GABA agonist anxiolytic/AED/sedative/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> benzodiazepine/anxiolytic C-IV lorazepam Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety/seizure/insomnia/ETOH withdrawal/muscle spasms C-IV Ativan CNS depressant/GABA agonist anxiolytic/AED/sedative/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> benzodiazepine/anxiolytic C-IV alprazolam Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety/seizure/insomnia/ETOH withdrawal/muscle spasms C-IV Xanax CNS depressant/GABA agonist anxiolytic/AED/sedative/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> benzodiazepine/anxiolytic C-IV oxazepam Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety/seizure/insomnia/ETOH withdrawal/muscle spasms C-IV Serax "Serax comedown" for ETOH withdrawal CNS depressant/GABA agonist anxiolytic/AED/sedative/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> benzodiazepine/anxiolytic C-IV midazolam Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety/seizure/insomnia/ETOH withdrawal/muscle spasms C-IV Versed Trade off market Injectable + PO form to Tx peri-operative CNS depressant/GABA agonist anxiolytic/AED/sedative/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> benzodiazepine/anxiolytic C-IV clorazepate Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety/seizure/insomnia/ETOH withdrawal/muscle spasms C-IV Tranxene CNS depressant/GABA agonist anxiolytic/AED/sedative/antidyskinetic </pre>
<pre> benzodiazepine antagonist Rx Only flumazenil Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat BZ overdose Rx Only Romazicon Side effect: increase HR/respirations will increase Block "benzo" receptors antidotes/GABA modulator </pre>
<pre> non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic Rx Only buspirone Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety Rx Only Buspar Very little sedation No dependence anxio-selective non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic </pre>
<pre> anxiolytic/antihistamines Rx Only hydroxyzine antihistamine cause mild sedation > relieve anxiety Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety/allergy symptoms Rx Only Atarax PO only: Atarax IM, PO: Vistaril Caution: use "Z track" for IM to avoid skin irritation anxio-selective anxiolytic/antipruritic/hypnotic/histamine H1 antagonist </pre>
<pre> anxiolytic/antihistamines Rx Only promethazine antihistamine cause mild sedation > relieve anxiety Generic Name </pre> <pre> Treat anxiety/allergy symptoms Rx Only Phenergan Chemically similar to phenothiazine > EPS risk (blocks dopamine) Antiemetic, no antipsychotic activity H1-antagonist anxiolytic/antipruritic/hypnotic/anticholenergic <
<pre> antihistamines Rx Only antihistamines (indication) histamine H1-antagonist Generic Name </pre> <pre> Indication of Use: Rx Only 1) Allergy symptoms, pruritis, N/V 2) Mild sedation > relieve anxiety 3) w/narcotics (synergism) for pain 4) may cause anticholinergic side effects </pre>
Created by: kyleburnes