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Emergencies Test 3

QuestionAnswer
What causes seizures? Electrical distrubance in the brain. Can be due to birth, injury, infection, stroke, alcoholism, drug abuse and brain tumor
What happens during an atonic seizure? Person suddenly falls- lasts only moments but can happen frequently
What happens during an absence seizure? Daydreaming/blank stare. It lasts only a few sec.
What is the diff between a generalized seizure and a partial seizure? General: affects both sides of the brain Partial: Affects only one side of the brain
What happens in a general tonic clonic seizure? The person blacks out, falls, stiffens and jerks uncontrollablly. Formerly a grand mal seizure
What happens during infantile spasms? Cluster of brief jerking/jacknifing movements.
What happens in a simple partial seizure? affects the senses, feelings and movements. Person may halucinate. They don't lose consciousness
What happens in myoclonic seizure Massive muscle jerks throwing the person to the ground. Only last a short time
What happens in a complex partial seizure? Lose of awareness and automatic movementments. Person is in a trans like state. Only lasts a few moments but confusion may last a lot longer
Describe the rule of nines as it relates to burns. Extent of burn or amount of surface area involved. Divided into sections each approx. 9% of total body surface area.
What is a 1st degree burn? Sunburn. Burn on the superficial part of the epidermis. Red but doesn't blister.
What is a 2nd degree burn? Entire thickness, dermis isn't destroyed and sub q tissue is not injured. Blister
What is a 3rd degree burn? Burns into the dermis and beyond the sub q fat. Nerve endings are destroyed, Skin has a leathery and discolored apprearance.
What is a full thincknedd burn? Burn goes into the sub q- 3rd degree
What is a partial thickness burn? Burn doesn't go into the sub q- 1&2 degree
What is aspirtation and what treatment is necessary for it? Intake of a foreign material into the lungs during breathing. Turn pt on their side, may need suction.
Give 3 reasons a pt may have a gastic tube? Adding meds, feeding the patient, diagnostic study with contrast
What is a pacemaker? Permanant electromagnetic device under the skin the regulate heart rate.
What is proper care of a tracheostomy tube? pening through the neck into the trachea to allow access to the breathing tube opening to provide an airway and to remove secretions from the lungs. Breathing is done through the tracheostomy tube.
Where is the electrode of the pacemaker positioned? apex of the rt ventrical
Give a min of 3 names of central lines. Hickman, port-a-cath, infusa port, mediport
What is a tracheostomy tube and why would a pt have one? Relieve respiraory distress caused by obstruction on the upper airway
What is treatment for a patient with an open wound? COntrol bleeding and dress wound. Apply pressure and don't remove prior dressing
What is proper care of a central venous line? Prevent dislodging- needs to remain above the rt atrium
What is a colostomy? Opening (stoma) created from the bowel to the outside of the body.
What is proper care of a colostomy bag? Sensitivity to the patient
How does a pulmonary artieral line differ firma central line? Monitors pulmonary pressyre, goes through the heart into the pulmonary artery. Central Line monitors cardiac pressure and stops before the lt atrium
Name 3 reasons a pt would have a central venous line. Chemotherapy, manage fluid volume, administer drugs
Where should the tip of the endotracheal tube (ET) be located? 1-2 in superior to the carina
What is proper care of a chest tube? Prevent dislodging
What is proper care of the urinary catheter? Keep bag below the level of the bladder. DOn't place on pt lap or abdomen
Where should the tip of the central line be positioned? 2-3 cm above junction into the rt atrium
What is the purpose of a chest tube> Establish neg pressure by draining blood and fluid
What is the purpose of a pulmonary artieral line? Evaluate pulmonary pressure (Swan- Ganz) diastolic pressure
Name a min of 3 reasons a pt may have an endotracheal tube> pneumothorax,hemothorax, pleural effusion (fluid in the lungs), empyema (pus in the lungs)
What is the proper care of a gastric tube? avoid dislodging
What is the proprer treatment of a head injury? Move as little as possible, watch for changes in presance
What are the sign of a deteriorating head injury? Alertness, drowsiness, unconscious, comotose
What are symptoms of CVA (cerebral vascular accident), what causes it, and what is the proper treatment? Sudden/deveolpe gradually, lose of vision, paralysis, slurred speach, loss of consciousness. DVT
What is a transcient ischemis attack (TIA) mini stroke
What is epitaxis and what treatment is needed? Nose bleed. Apply pressure and tilt head forward
How do you move a pt with a c-spine injury, and what is the danger of doing so? Log roll them. Immobilize on a backboard. You may do more damage
What is cyanosis, what causes it, what is the proper treatment? BLuish discoloration of the skin, lack of oxygen. (lips and nailbeds are blue)
What are the 4 levels of consciousness ALert, drowsiness, unconscious, comotose
How do you move a pt with a fx extremity? Hold above and below the joint
What is the most common trauma pt? MVA
What is vertigo? Dizziness
What is syncope? faintint
What is psychogenic shock? Vessel failure (sycope) loss of blood to the brain
What is neurogenic shock? Damage to the spinal cord (vessel failure) affect nervous system
What is anaphylatic shock? Most sever form of allergic reaction. Non-vascular
What is cardiogenic shock? Pump failure: inadequet function of the heart. Dysfunction of the heart muscle: not enough pressure to circulate pressure to the organs
What is hypovelis shock? blood and plasma loss, so the vloume in the system is insuffient
What is septic shock? Vessel and content failure. Severe infection or toxins. Blood vessels leak blood
In the treatment of shock, what are the 3 top priorities? ABC's, elevate exterenities, prevent heat loss, don't give anything my mouth
In what 3 body systerms in anaphylactic shock appearant? Circulatory, respirotory, and skin.
Name 4 ways a pt can be exposed to a substance and have anaphylactic shock? Injection, sting, ingestion, and inhalation.
if a pt is in shock, what will their breathing be like? Skin? Pulse? Blood pressure? Shallow rapid breathing, cold/wet, sweating, paleness, weak and rapis pulse that gradually decreases
What causes hypoglycemia? Your body's sugar (glucose) is used up too quickly, Glucose is released into the bloodstream too slowly,Too much insulin is released into the bloodstream Too much insulin present- burning sugar too fast.
What causes hyperglycemia? Excessive suger in the blood
What is another name of insulin shock? Hypoglycemia
Which will be sweating? hypoglycemia
Which will have dry skin? hyperglycemia
Which will have hunger? Hypoglycemia
Which will have extreme thirst? Hyperglycemia
Which will have a rapid onset? Hypoglycemia
What is treatment for hyperglycemia Juice
What is the treatment for hypoglycemia? Insulin
Created by: 638323941