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CH 3 Chest

anatomy and positioning for cxr

3 sections of the chest bony thorax, respiratory system proper, mediastinum
Bony thorax consists of? sternum, 2 clavicles, 2 scapulae, 12 pairs of ribs, 12 thoracic vertebrae
4 divisions of the respiratory system? larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Primary muscle of inspiration? Diaphragm L & R hemidiaphragm
Pharynx? passageway for both food and fluid, as well as air, common to digestive and respiratory system, 3 divisions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Epilgottis? during swallowing flips down & covers laryngeal opening, prevents food & fluid from entering the larynx and bronchi, composed of cartilage
Esophagus? connects pharynx to stomach, posterior to larynx and trachea
Larynx? voice box, suspended from hyoid bone, between C3 and C6, anterior wall made of throid cartilage, cricoid cartilage forms inferior and posterior wall
Trachea? windpipe, 20 C shaped rings keep it open, extends from C6 to T4/T5
Thyroid gland? helps regulate body growth, stores hormones that aid in metabolism, very radiosensitive
Thymus gland? T cells, very prominent in infants decreases in size until adulthood, functions in producing antibodies
Rt & Lt Bronch? Rt is wide, short, and vertical, divides into 3 secondary bronchi, Lt is narrow and horizontal, divides into 2 secondary bronchi, point of carina divides the trachea into rt & lt @ T5
Bronchioles? Rt & Lt secondary bronchi that continue to subdivide eventually into terminal bronchioles and alveoli
Alveoli? O2 & CO2 exchanged through thin walls, 500 to 700 million in the lungs
Rt. Lung? 3 lobes (superior, middle, inferior) seperated by 2 deep fissures (horizontal and oblique)
Lt. Lung? 2 lobes (superior, inferior) seperated by 1 deep oblique fissure
Lungs? made of parenchyma (light spongy elastic substance), contained in double walled sac called pleura, outer layer is parietal, inner layer is pulmonary/visceral layer
Pneumothorax air or gas present in the pleural cavity
Hemothorax blood or fluid in pleural cavity
Anatomy included on PA chest? Apices ---> costophrenic angles bases, diaphragms, carina, hilum, heart, trachea. ribs, clavicles
Mediastinum? thymus, heart and great vessels, trachea, esophagus
Heart & Great Vessels? inferior/superior venae cava, aorta, pulmonary arterires and veins
Superior Venae Cava? returns blood to the heart from upper body
Inferior Venae Cava? returns blood to the heart from lower body
Pulmonary artery? carries deoxygenated blood
Pulmonary vein? carries oxygenated blood
Hypersthenic? 5% broad, barrel chested
Sthenic? 50% "normal"
Hyposthenic? 35% slightly smaller than "normal" but bigger than asthenic
Asthenic? 10% skinny
Created by: 58405016