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Business Management

Chapters 7-12

S-curve pattern of innovation • A pattern of technological innovation characterized by slow initial progress, then rapid progress, and then slow progress again as a technology matures and reaches its limits
Innovation streams (definition) • Patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage
Discontinuous change • The phase of a technology cycle characterized by technological substitution and design competition
Incremental change • The phase of a technology cycle in which companies innovate by lowering costs and improving the functioning and performance of the dominant technological design
Activities within a creative work environment that encourage creativity • Challenging work • Organizational encouragement • Supervisory encouragement • Work group encouragement • Freedom • A lack of organizational impediments
The goals of the compression approach to innovation • The goals of the compression approach are lower costs and incremental improvements in the performance and function of the existing dominant design
How can managers manage resistance to change? • Managers should educate employees about the need for change and communicate change-related information and funding or other support employees need to make changes
Multinational corporation (definition) • A corporation that owns business in two or more countries
Tariffs (examples) • Trade barriers- government-imposed regulations that increase the cost and restrict the number of imported goods
Subsidies (definition) • Government loans, grants, and tax deferments given to domestic companies to protect them from foreign competition
A major question that must be answered when a company decides to go global • How and why companies go global by examining the tradeoff between consistency and adaptation
Local adaptation • When a multinational company modifies its rules, guidelines, policies, and procedures to adapt to differences in foreign customers, governments, and regulatory agencies
Examples of cooperative contracts o Two kinds of cooperative contracts: licensing and franchising
What is emphasized in both organizational structure and organizational process? o Companies use organizational structure to set up departments and relationships among employees in order to make business hap
Type of organizational structure used by institutions of higher education • Functional departmentalization- Organizing work and workers into separate units responsible for particular business functions or areas of expertise
Product departmentalization • Organizing work and workers into separate units responsible for producing particular products or services
Characteristics of matrix departmentalization • Matrix departmentalization- a hybrid organizational structure in which two or more forms of departmentalization, most often product and functional, are used together
The 3 transfers that occur when managers delegate work 1. The manager transfers full responsibility for the assignment to the subordinate. 2. The manager gives the subordinate full authority over the budget, resources, and personnel needed to do the job. 3. The transfer of accountability.
Job enlargement and job enrichment • Job enlargement- Increasing the number of different tasks that a worker performs within one job. • Job enrichment- Increasing the number of tasks in a job and giving workers the authority and control to make meaningful decisions about their work
How do organizations use teams to increase customer satisfaction? 1. To create work teams that are trained to meet the needs of specific customers 2. Businesses also create problem-solving teams and employee involvement teams to study ways to improve overall customer satisfaction and make recommendations for improveme
Reasons why teamwork be more satisfying than traditional work • Use Teams When… There is a clear, engaging reason or purpose; The job can’t be done unless people work together; Rewards can be provided for teamwork and team performance; Ample resources are available • Don’t Use Teams When… There isn’t a
Potential disadvantages associated with the use of work teams 1. Initially high turnover 2. Social loafing 3. Groupthink 4. Minority domination
Type of team that does not have the authority to make decisions • Traditional work groups
Characteristics of a project team • Typically led by a project manager • Demand both individual and collective responsibility • Drawing employees from different functional areas • Flexibility
At which stage of team development is group cohesion relatively strong? • Norming
Gainsharing (definition) • A compensation system in which companies share the financial value of performance gains, such as productivity, cost savings, or quality, with their workers
The intent of federal anti-discrimination law • The intent is to make these factors irrelevant in employment decisions
Disparate treatment (definition) • Intentional discrimination that occurs when people are purposely not given the same hiring, promotion, or membership opportunities because of their race, color, sex, age, ethnic group, national origin, or religious beliefs
The 80% rule • A rule of thumb used by the courts to determine whether there is evidence of adverse impact. When the selection rate for a protected group is less than 80 percent of the selection rate for a un-protected group
Quid pro quo sexual harassment A form of sexual harassment in which employment outcomes, such as hiring, promotion, or simply keeping one’s job, depend on whether an individual submits to sexual harassment
Two of the most important results of a job analysis • Job descriptions and job specifications are two of the most important results of a job analysis
Advantages of Internet recruiting • Reduces recruitment startup time and costs
Work sample tests (what they measure) • Work sample tests directly measure job applicants’ capability to do the job
Examples of subjective performance measures • Subjective performance measures require that someone judge or assess a worker’s performance i.e. rating on a scale of 1-5 of Almost Never to Almost Always of “Greets customers with a smile and “hello”
Affirmative action (definition) • Purposeful steps taken by an organization to create employment opportunities for minorities and women
A key difference between affirmative action and diversity • One key difference is that affirmative action is more narrowly focused on demographics such as sex and race, while diversity has a broader focus that includes demographic, cultural, and personal differences
Why does diversity actually make good business sense? • Reducing costs • Attracting and retaining talent • Driving business growth
Social integration (definition) • The degree to which group members are psychologically attracted to working with each other to accomplish a common objective
Glass ceiling (definition) • The invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing to the top jobs in organizations
The “Big Five” Personality Dimensions • Extraversion • Emotional Stability • Agreeableness • Conscientiousness • Openness to Experience
Conscientiousness (as defined in the “Big Five” Personality Dimensions) • Conscientiousness- the degree to which someone is organized, hardworking, responsible, preserving, thorough, and achievement oriented
Organizational plurality (definition) • Where (1) all members contribute in to maximizing the benefits to the organization, customers, and themselves and (2) the individuality of each member is respected by not segmenting or polarizing people on the basis of their membership in a group
Created by: s0746382
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