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Knee Ch.18

Knee

QuestionAnswer
What is the jt. structure of the knee? No bony stability @ knee only soft tissue
What is the most frequently injured joint? Knee
What is the largest joint in the body? Knee
What type of joint is the knee? synovial, hinge joint; uniaxial (flexion/extension)
What is the accessory motion of the knee joint? Rotation
Are the femoral condyles concave or convex? Convex
Is the Tibial plateau concave or convex? Concave
What actions must take place so the femur does NOT roll off the tibial plateau? Roll & glide
Is the femoral condyle larger then the tibial plateau? Yes
Which condyle is larger, medial or lateral? Medial condyle
What caused the accessory motion of rotation? The medial condyle is larger and causes a spin.
At the end of an OKC motion of the knee, what position is the tibia in? External rotation
At the end of an CKC motion of the knee, what position is the tibia in? Internal rotation
What do we call a "locked" knee? Screw home mechanism
What must be done to "unlock" the knee? Internal rotation of the tibia @ the knee
What muscle "unlocks" the knee? Popliteus muscle of the knee
Where is the patellofemoral joint? It is the articulation between the femur & patella
What is the job of the patella? Increases mechanical advantage of quads and protects the knee joint
Explain the term "Q angle" (patellofemoral angle) The angle between the quadriceps & the patellar tendon. The ASIS to the mid pt. of the patella and the mid pt of the patella to the tibial tuberosity. Increases for femails.
What is the normal range for the "Q angle"? 10-18 degrees (greater for females due to wider pelvis)
What is the ratio for the hamstrings strength? 3:2
What is the ratio for the hanstrings strength without the patella? 1:1
What is ACL? Anterior cruciates ligament
What is PCL? Posterior cruciates ligament
Where does the ACL attach? (Cross your fingers and place on your knee - top finger represents the ACL) Anterior tibia medially & medial meniscus X superior/posterior (lateral) to lateral condyle of the femur.
Where does the PCL attach? (Cross your fingers and place on your knee - bottom finger represents the PCL)Posterior tibia X superior/anterior to medial condyle of the femur
What working together provides stability for the knee in the sagital plane? ACL & PCL (they support the roll and glide)
What prevents the tibia from gliding anteriorly on the femur? ACL
What prevents the tibia from gliding posteriorly on the femur? PCL
What ligament is tight in extension and prevents hyperextension? ACL
What ligament is tight in flexion? PCL
Which knee ligament is thicker, stronger, and injured less and not always fixed? PCL
What is MCL? Medial collateral ligament
What is LCL? Lateral collateral ligament
What working together provides stability for the knee in the frontal plane? MCL & LCL
What collateral ligament is flat & broad and frequently torn? MCL
What collateral ligament attaches to the medial condyles of the femur and tibia? MCL
WHat collateral ligament attaches to the medial meniscus? MCL
What collateral ligament is round, cord-like & feels like a pensil? LCL
What collateral ligament attaches to the lateral condyle of the femur and head of the fibula? LCL
What collateral ligament is not often injured? LCL
What does the meniscus of the knee look like? 2 half-mooned, wedged, fibrocartilage. Thicker more lateral then medial
What does the meniscus of the knee do? Deepens the articular surface and becomes a shock absorber
Which menisci is oftern torn, the medial or lateral? Medial
Frontal plane of knee = ? Injury
WHat creates the terrible triad? ACL, MCL and medial meniscus
True or false: all 3 parts of the terrible triad are usually damaged at the same time when an injury occurs? True
How many bursa are in the knee? 13
What do bursa do? Decrease friction, communicate w/jt. of the knee
Where do you find the prepatellar bursa? Anterior surface, between the patella and the skin
What are the muscles in the anserine or pes anserine group? Sartorius, gracilis, & semitemdinosus
The anserine bursa is located? Medially wider the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus
Where is the popliteal fossa bursa? Between the popliteus tendon & the lateral femoral condyle
Can the popliteal space be easily damaged? Yes
Genu Valgum "Knock knees"
What do your legs look like if you have genu valgum? Valgus increase laterally / displacement of distal end of the tibia
Genu Varum "Bowlegs"
What do your legs look like if you have genu varum? Varum increasesmedially / displacement of distal end of the tibia
Combination deformities switch @ the knee so if you have Coxa Valga... You have genu varum & supination
Combination deformities switch @ the knee so if you have Coxa Varum... You have genu valgum & pronation
Genu Recurvation "Back knees" greater then 0 degrees of hyperextension. Knees go backwards.
Paterrar Tendinitis Tendon overuse; "jumper's knee" overuse or sudden impact (contract w/o stretch)
Osgood-Schlatter's Overuse tendon pulls @ traction epiphysis @ tibial tuberosity. Causes bone growth (Wolf's Law) & possible avulsion. Tibial tuberosity can come off.
Baker's Cyst Bursitis in posterior knee (popliteal region)
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Anterior knee pain, poor tracking, increased Q angle, weak quads espically medially, tight lateral quads, and pronated feet
Chondromalacid Patellae Dying cartilage; degeneration (softening) of the cartilage of the posterior patella (very painful)
What is another name for Prepatalar bursitis? Housemaid's knee
What is Prepatalar bursitis? Pressure of the patella's bursa
Created by: srussel