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Carlton Adler Ch 41

what is a tomogram? the actual image?
what is a tomograph? the piece of equipment used
what is tomography? the modality/ exam
principle of tomography synchonized movement of two elements, objects in plane of fulcrum sharp, objects farther away blurred
pivot point around the movement occurs, object being examined is placed at this point fulcrum
where is object being imaged placed? fulcrum
method to overcome superimposition tomography
three elements of tomography tube, object, IR
terms used to describe section of interested in tomography slice or cuts
what is the result of a tomographic image? area of fulcrum is sharp because it has not moved in relationship to tube & IR during position
arc or angle the tube travels. Total distance traveled by the tube tomographic amplitude
arc or angle the tube travels during the exposure exposure amplitude
what kind of slices do we take in tomography only coronal slices
blurring of anatomic structures lying outside to focal plane motion blur
what is properly imaged in tomography only the object lying in the focal plane
how is blur demonstrated on the tomogram? objects lying outside focal plane demonstrate increasing blur the further away from the object plane
how does blur effect density? increased blurring causes decreased density. Objects are more transparent, permits objects with the focal plane to be seen through the blurring
how is tomographic amplitude (arc) related to blur direct relationship. Increase in arc, increase in blur
how is distance from fulcrum related to blur? directly. Increase in distance of an object from fulcrum, increase in blur
how is distance from IR related to blur? directly, increase in object from IR, increase in blur
as the tube approaches perpendicularity, what happens to blur? blur increases
blurred edges or margins phantoms
when are phantoms produced? during complex tomographic motion
occurs when tube motion is parallel to long axis of object phantoms
The tomographic arc is greater or less than the exposure arc? greater than or equal to
the exposure arc is greater or less than the tomographic arc? less than or equal to
what decreases phantom images reduced section thickness and increased exposure amplitude
pivot point fulcrum
how do you adjust fulcrum? move table up or down OR move fulcrum up or down, patient remains stationary.
region within the image exhibits satisfactory recorded detail and is controlled by the fulcrum focal plane
controlled by the exposure angle (amplitude) width of the focal plane
what is the relationship between thickness and exposure angle? inverse relationship- as angle increases, section thickness decreases.
what determines section thickness? tomography angle
controlled at the table, increments of 1/2 cm or 1 cm. section interval
cannot exceed the section thickness section interval
most common and most widely used type of motion linear
variety of motions pluridirectional
types of pluridirectional movements curvilinear, circular, elliptical, figure eight, trispiral, hypocycloidal
slice thickness relationship to movements more complex motion uses thinner slices
must match length of time required for x-ray tube to complete the tomo amplitude exposure time
what kind of mA used for tomogram? low mA, 100 mA
narrow angle, small exposure amplitude, 10ยบ arc- produce thick sections, application in chest and renal studies Zonography
when lesion has been localized and fine detail is needed - produces thinner sections wide angle tomography
curved, used mostly for head, mandible. Tube & IR collimated to a slit and travel in opposite directions panoramic tomography
technique used to produce rad image with depth perception, making it 3D stereoradiography
common uses for stereoradiography chest, skull, shoulder, sinus, FB
Created by: jen.studer