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Nursing Pharmacology

Pharmacology 201

QuestionAnswer
Chemical Name A precise description of the chemical composition and molecular stucture of the drug.
Collaborative Problems The physiologic complications that nurses monitor to detect their onset or changes in status.
Dosage The section of specific drug information that presents the currently approved regimen governing the size, frequency, and the number of doses of a therapeutic agent.
Drug Any substance used in the diagnosis, cure, or treatment, or prevention of a disease or condition.
Generic (Nonproprietary) Name Simplifed version of the chemical name. It is the official name listed in official compendiums.
indications The officially approved therapeutic purposes of the durg or the conditions for which it is used
Mechanism of action The section of specific drug information that explains how the drug acts at the biochemical levelor cellular level to produce its therapeutic effects.
Nonprescription or over-the-counter (OTC) drug A drug that may be purchased without a prescription.
Pharmacokinetics The section of specific drug information that specifies how the drug is apsorbed, distributed, associated with tissue, biotrasformed or metabolized, and excreted.
Pharmacopeia The total of all authorized drugs available within a country; it contains descriptions, recipes, strengths, standards of purity, and dosage forms for the drugs.
Pregnancy Safety Boxes of specific drug information that list the FDA pregnancy safety category associated with various drugs, which indicates the documented problems with the use of a drug during pregnancy.
Prescription Drug or Legend Drug A drug which requires a legal prescription in order to be dispensed.
Side Effects/Adverse Reactions The section of specific drug information that details most of the common secondary effects that may be experienced when the drug is administered.
Trade, Brand, or Proprietary name A name given to a drug by drug companies marketing a particular drug
Onset of duration time it takes to reach the minimum effective concentration (MEC) after a drug is administered.
Peak action occurs when the drug reaches its highest blood or plasma concentration
Duration of action length of time the drug has a pharmacologic effect
Time response curve evaluates 3 parameters of drug action: the onset of drug action, peak action, and duration of action.
ligand-binding domain site on the receptor in which drugs bind
agonists drugs that PRODUCE a response
antagonists drugs that BLOCK a response
Nonspecific drugs drugs that affect various sites and have properties of nonspecificity
Nonselective drugs drugs that affect various receptors or have properties of nonslectivity
therapeutic index (TI) estimates the margin of safety of a drug through the use of a ratio that measures the effective(therapeutic or concentration) dose (ED) in 50% of persons or animals (ED50) and the lethal dose (LD) in 50% of animals (LD50). Provides a quantitative measure
therapeutic index (TI) highest plasma concentration of a drug at a specific time
trough drug level lowest plasma concentration of a drug and measures rate at which drug is eliminated
Pharmacogenetics the effect of a drug action that varies from a predicted drug response b/c of genetic factors or hereditary influence.
tachyphylaxis refers to a rapid decrease in response to the drug. An "acute tolerance"
placebo effect psychologic benefit from a compound that may not have the chemical structure of a drug effect.
Absorption A process involving the movement of drug molecules from the site of entry into the body to the circulating fluids.
Dissolution The process by which a drug goes into solution and becomes available for absorption.
Half-Life The time required to reduce by one half the amount of unchanged drug in the body at the time equilibrium is established.
Maintenance Dose Daily doses of a drug used to maintain a therapeutic drug response.
Bioavailability The percentage of active drug substances absorbed and available to reach the target tissues following drug administration.
Distribution The transport of a drug in body fluids from the bloodstream to various tissues of the body and ultimately to its site of action
Iatrogenic Any adverse mental or physical condition induced in a client by a prescribed treatment or diagnostic procedure.
Pharmaceutics he study of the ways in which various drug forms influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities.
Receptor The reactive cellular site with which a drug interacts to produce a pharmacologic response.
Biotransformation Also known as drug metabolism, this is the process of chemically inactivating a drug by converting it into a more water-soluble compound or metabolite that can then be excreted from the body
Excretion The process by which drugs and pharmacologically active or inactive metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys.
Loading or Priming Dose An initial, temporary large dose of a drug used to obtain a rapid therapeutic drug response
Pharmacodynamics The study of the mechanism of drug action on living tissue, or the response of tissues to specific chemical agents at various sites in the body.
Abstinence or Withdrawl Syndrome Symptoms that are experienced by a chemically dependent person who is suddenly deprived of the substance of abuse.
Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) A federal agency that monitors the data on the medical and psychologic problems associated with drug use and changing patterns of substance abuse
Drug Misuse A term that refers to the nonspecific or indiscriminate use of drugs, including alcohol
Hallucinogen A drug that causes auditory or visual hallucinations.
Metabolic (Pharmacologic) Tolerance An aspect of drug disposition. Prolonged exposure to a drug can change the body's metabolic response to the drug, increasing drug clearance with repeated ingestion.
Physical dependence An adaptive state that occurs after prolonged use of a drug. Discontinuation of the drug causes physical symptoms that are relieved by readministering the same drug or a pharmocologically related drug
pKa The point at which half the drug amount in the body is ionized and half is nonionized
Psychologic dependence or addiction A behavioral pattern charact by drug craving, out-of-control drug use, overwhelming concern c obtaining a drug supply, personal and legal problems, denial, and continued use of the drug despite personal and legal diffic.Drug doesn't improve qual of life
Receptor Site (Tissue) Tolerance A form of adaption in which the effect produced depends both on the concentr of the drug and duration of exposure. The clinical effect of the drug is reduced as the duration of exposure continues b/c of changes in the number or function of receptors
Substance Abuse A term that refers to the self-medication or self-administration of a drug in chronically excessive quantities, resulting in physical and/or psychologic dependence, functional impairment, and deviation from approved social norms
tolerance The tendency to increase drug doses to maintain the effect formerly produced by a lower dose. It may exist with either phchologic or physical dependence
Created by: aflores35