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HRM-Exam 2

Chapters 6-10

Personnel Selection the process through which organizations make decisions about who will or who will not be allowed to join the organization
Steps in the selection process 1)Screening Applications and Resumes 2)Testing and Reviewing Work Samples 3) Interviewing Candidates 4)Checking References and Background 5)Making a Selection
Criteria for Evaluating Selection Methods ~Reliable ~Valid ~Generalizable ~High-Utility ~Legal
Reliability The extent to which a measurement generates consistent results, i.e., is free from random error
Validity the extent to which performane on a measure (e.g. test score) is related to what the measure is desined to assess (such as job performance)
Predictive Validity description of the future; criterion data are measured after the passage of time
Concurrent Validity description of the present; criterion data are available at the same time as predictor scores
Content Validity Consistency between the test items or problems and the kinds of situations that ocur on-the-job
Construct Validity Capability of a test to measure a construct, e.g., intelligene and the relationship of this construct to successful job performance
Application Forms a low-cost way to gather basic data from many applicants
Resumes usual way that applicants introduce themselves to a potential employer
References applicants provide names and contacts information of former employers or others
Background Checks way of varifying accuracy of information applicants have submitted
Aptitude Tests assess how well a person can learn or acuire skills and abilities
Achievement Tests Measure a person's existing knowledge and skills
Physical Ability Evaluates one or more physical or psychomotor abilities
Cognitive Ability Intelligence tests; measure mental abilities including verbal, quantitative, and/or reasoning
Job Performance test for performing specialized tasks; in-basket tests and work samples; assessment centre
Personality Inventories Finds applicants who have desired personality traits
Honesty, Alcohol & Drug Honesty (integrity) tests; alcohol & drug testing must conform to Human Rights legislation
Medical Examinations must be related to job requirements; establishes physical condition at hiring; conducted after conditional job offer
Nondirective Interview interviewer has great discretion in choosing questions to ask
Structured Interview Consists of a predetermined of questions for the interviewer to ask
Situational Structured Interview Interviewer describes a situation asks the candidate what he/she would do
Behavioral Strutured Interview Interviewer asks the candidate to describle how he/she handled a type of situation in the past
Panel Interview several members of the organization meet to interview each candidate
Multiple-Hurdle Model process of arriving at a selection decision by eliminating some candidates at each stage
Compensatory Model process of arriving at a selection decision in which a very high score on one type assessment can make up for a low score on another
Training an organization's planned efforts to help employees acquire job-related competencies with the goal of applying these on the job
Employee Development the combination of formal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessment of personality and competencies to help employees prepare for the future of their careers
Instructional Design process of systematically developing training to meet specified needs
Organziation Analysis Determine appropriateness of training by evaluating characteristics of the organization; considers organization's strategy, resources, and management support
Person Analysis Process for determining individuals' needs and readiness for training
Training Programs should directly relate to the needs assessment
Classroom Instruction most widely used training method; instructor leading a group; distance learning
Audiovisual Training Trainees work independently; uses videos, podcasts, workbooks
Computer-Based Training Likely to be interactive; E-learning; Electronic Performance Support
On-the-Job Training Apprenticeship; Internship; Cooperative Education
Simulations Represents real-life situations; virtual reality
Business Games & Case Studies Help develop management skills; case studies; business games
Behavior Modeling Demonstration of desired behavior; opportunities to practice
Team Training & Learning Experimental programs; adventure learning; cross-training; coordination training; action learning
Transfer of Training On-the-job use of competencies enhanced in training; requires the employees learn the content; conditions are in place to apply what is learned
Training Outcomes Evaluate what (if anything) has changed as a result of the training
Orientation Training designed to prepae employees to perform their jobs effectively, learn about their organization, and establish work relationship
Socialization Ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values, and expected behavior
Reality Shock Discrepancy between new employee's expectations and reality
Diversity Training Training designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and/or develop skills needed to work in a diverse workforce
Formal Education Workshops Short Courses University/College programs
Assessment Collecting and providing feedback about behavior, communication style, or skills
Job Experiences Job Enrichment Job Rotation Transfers, Promotions, and Downward Moves
Interpersonal Relationships Mentor Coach
Self-Assessment ~Identify opportunities and needs to improve ~Provide assessment information to identify strengths, weaknesses, interests, and values
Reality Check ~Identify what needs are realistic to develop ~Communicate performance evaluation, where employee fits in long-range plans of the company, changes in industry, profession, and worplace
Goal Setting ~Identify goal and method to determine goal progress ~Ensure that goal is specific, challenging, and attainable; commit to help employee reach the goal
Action Planning ~Identify steps and timetable to reach goal ~Identify resources employee needs to reach goal, including courses, work experiences, relationships
Glass Ceiling Circumstanes resembling an invisible barrier that keep most women and minorities from attaining the top jobs in organizations
Succession Planning The process of identifying and tracking high-potential employees who will be able to fill top management positions when they become vacant
Dysfuntional Managers A manager who is otherwise competent may engage in some behaviors that make him or her ineffective or even "toxic"-stifles ideas and drives away good employees
Performance Management The process of ensuring that employees' activities and outputs match the organization's goals
Strategic (Purposes of PM) Helps organization achieve its business objectives; Links employees' behavior with the organization's goals
Administrative (Purposes of PM) Provides information for day-to-day decisions (salary); Supports decisions (promotion)
Developmental (Purposes of PM) Basis for developing employees' comptencies; Makes employees aware of strengths and areas for improvement
Simple Ranking Requires managers to rank employees in their group from the highest performer to the poorest performer
Forced Distribution Assigns a certain percentage of employees to each category in a set of categories
Paired Comparison Compares each employee with each other employee t establish rankings
Attributes Graphic rating scale; Mixed-standard scale
Behaviors Critical-incident method; Behaviorally-anchored rating scale; Organizational behavior modification
Results Measurement of Productivity; Management by Objectives
Critical Incident Method ~Critical Incident: an unusual even that denotes superior or inferior employee performance in some part of the job ~The manager keeps a log or diary for each employee throughout the appraisal period & notes specific crit inc. related to how they perform
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) Consists of a series of vertical scales, one fo each dimension of job performance; typically developed by a committee that includes both subordinates and managers
Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS) Uses all behaviors necessary for effective performance to rate
Organizational Behavior Modification (OBM) Manages the behavior of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement
BARS (Pros and Cons) Pros: a more accurate measure; clearer standards; feedback; independent dimensions; consistency Cons: Difficult to develop; time consuming
Productivity Measures Appraisals based on quantitative measures that directly link what employees accomplish to results beneficial to the organziation
Management by Objectives (MBO) People at each level of the organization set goeals in a process that flows from top to bottom, so that all levels are contributing to the organization's overall goals
Involuntary Turnover Turnover initiated by an employer, often with employees who would prefer to stay
Voluntary Turnover Turnover initiated by employees, often whe the organizatio would prefer to keep them
Employee Separation Organizations must develop a standardized, systematic approach to discipline and discharge; these decisions should not be left solely to the discretion of individual mangers or supervisors; policis should allow for various ways to intervene
Outcome Fairness A judgement that the consequences given to employees are just
Procedural Justice A judgement that fair methods were used to determine the consequences an employee receives
Interactional Justice A judgement that the organiztion carried out its actions in a wy that took the employee's feelings into account
Wrongful Discharge The discharge may not violate an implied agreement; The discharge may not violate public policy
Discrimination Employers must make discipline decisions without regard to a person's age, sex, race, or other protected status
Employees' Privacy Employers need to ensure that the information they gather and use for discipline is relevant; privacy issues also concern the employer's wish to search or monitor employees; employers must be prudent in deciding who will see the information
Notifications of Layoffs According to Workers' Adjustment Retraining and Notification Act, organizations with more than 100 employees are required to give 60 days notice before any closings or layoffs that will affect at least 50 full-time employees
Hot-Stove Rule Principle of discipline that says discipline shoud be like a hot stove, giving clear warning and following up with consistent, objective, and immediate consequences
Progressive Discipline A formal discipline process in which the consequencs ebcome more serious if the employee repeats the offense
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) methods of solving problem by bringing an impartial outsider but not using the court system
Employee Assistace Program A referral service that employees can use to seek professional treatment for emotional problems or substance abuse
Outplacement Counseling A service in which professionals try to help dismissed employees manage the transisiton from one job to another
Job Satisfaction A pleasant feeling resulting from the perception that one's job fulfills or allows for the fulfillment of one's important job values
Created by: weirx056
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