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Chapter 12 and 16

What are Erythrocytes? Erythrocytes are Red Blood Cells or call RBC. They are formed in bone marrow.
What is the Function of RBC? RBC are the principal carriers of oxygen in the body. RBC is a membrane-lined sac of hemoglobin, which has a powerful affinity for oxygen.
What is Hemoglobin HB? Carries O2 on the red blood cell. It is know as the tranporter. 12-16 grams.
What is Anemia? When the hemoglobin is less than 12 grams.
What is Polycythemia? When the Hemoglobin is higher than 16 grams.
What is Hematocrit? Hematocrit is the ratio of RBC volume to that of whole blood. It is determined by spinning a blood sample in a centrifuge to separate the blood cells from the plasma.
What are Leukocytes? Leukocytes are white blood cells or WBC. They are the defenders against infection.
What are the granular leukocytes? Neutrophil, Eosinophils, Basophils
What are Neutrophil? 65% of the total WBC. Bands are immature cells and Segs are mature cells.
What are bands? They are known as immature neutophils. The majority of bands are located in the bone marrow where they continue to mature.
What are Segs? Segs are mature neutophils.
What are Eosinophils? They are 3% of the WBC. Their concentration rises during allergic reactions.
What are Basophils? They are 1% of WBC. Releases histamine-inflammation & heparin.
What are NonGranular Leukocytes? Nongranular are called Lymphocytes & Monocytes.
What are Lymphocytes? Makes up about 30% of the leuckocyte numbers. Lymphocytes secrete antibodies and assist in rejection of foreign tissue transplants. They are an essential part of the body defense system.
What are Monocytes? Monocytes are the largest of the leukocytes. They can readily enter and leave the cirulatory system, and are capable of ingesting bacteria voraciously
What are Platelets? Platelets are also known as thrombocytes. They are small bits of cytoplasm from giant cells of the bone marrow and found in the circulatory system at about 200,000 to 400,000. Less than 200,000 may be internal bleeding.
What are electrolytes? Electrolytes are essential for homeostasis, and many different abnormalites can occur when their concentration deviates from normal.
What is Natremia? It is the sodium level in blood.
What is the normal level of sodium (Na+) in blood? Sodium (Na+) Normal - 137 to 147.It is a cation
What is Hypoatremia of Sodium? It is a low Na+ level and it may occur with diuretic therapy, diarrhea, or certain kidney problems.
What can occur with sever Hypoatremia of Sodium? It may cause developement of confusion, decreased mental alterness, muscle twitching, and possible seizures.
What is Hypernatremia of Sodium? It occurs with renal diseases and excessive water loss. It is a elevation of the serum Na+ levels.
What is the normal level of Potassium (k+) in the blood? The Normal is 3.5 to 4.8. It is also for cardiac function (heart arrythmia)
What is Hypokalemia of Potassium? It is when K+ containing fluids are lost in excessive amounts, such as with vomiting, diarrhea, or the administration of diuretics. It also leads to weakening of the cardiac muscle, which reduce cardiac output.
What is Hyperkalemia of Potassium? Abnormal elevation of the serum of K+. It occurs as renal disease and tissue trauma.
What are some symptoms of hyperkalemia? May cause the patient to feel tired, weak, and nauseated.
What is the normal level of chloride (Cl-) in the blood? The normal is 98-105. It is also anion.
What is Hypochloremia of chloride of the blood? Reduced Cl- occurs with prolonged vomiting, resulting in the loss of HCl, chronic respiratory acidosis, and certain renal diseases.
What is Hyperchloremia of chloride? It is a increase of chloride and it occurs with prolonged diarrhea, certain kidney diseases, and some cases of hyperthyroidism. Renal disease
What are cardiac enzymes? Troponin T, Troponin I, and CK (Creatine Kinase) If elevated (heart attack)
What is the Sweat Chloride Test? It is very specific test to diagnos Cystic Fibrosis. Patient will have abnormally elevated Cl- levels in their sweat (more than 60 to 80).
What is blood glucose? Normal levels blood glucose is 70-100 mg/dl
What is Type 1 Diabetes? It is a reduced insulin production by the pancreas and presents most often in younger patients.
What is Type 2 Diabetes?
Created by: lledesma7