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90% of the cells in the brain are these, they physically & mechanically support neurons, manufacture and absorb chemicals, protect & Insulate nerve fibres and serve as the brains immune system Glial Cells
axon terminals contain sacs of ...? neurotransmitters
Basically what does the brain do in the NS? control centre for the entire nervous system
Basically what does the somatic nervous system do? receives incoming sensory messages and outgoing commands from brain to skeletal muscles
Basically what does the spinal cord do? connects brain and PNS and enables spinal cord reflexes
Bundles of fibres through which information is transported nerves
Communication between neurons? chemical
Communication within a neuron? Electrical
Finish the sentence. Axonal terminals are seperated from the next neuron by a _? A gap called the synaptic cleft
Finish the sentence. Axonal terminals contain vescicles with _? neurotransmitters
how are messages transmitted when it reaches the end of an axon? neurotransmitters (NS nerve chemicals) are released which cross the synaptic cleft/gap and attaches to receptors in another neuron
how do drugs affect synapses? a drug can mimic, increase, decrease or block effects of transmitter
How do drugs affect synpases Mimic, Increase (agonist) or block (antagonist) effect of specific transmitters,
How do neurons actually function? Irritability, Conductivity, Polarised plasma membrane at rest
How do neurons communicate with other cells Synapses
how does action potential work? Sodium (Na) channels open allowing more sodium inside the cell. This causes Potassium (K) channels to open and potassium to leave the cell. The cell interior then changes from negative to positively charged. Sodium particles move via diffusion along the m
how does myelin sheaths allow faster transmission of action potentials? Impulses are able to cross the synapse to another nerve
How is information transmitted along neurons? Pulses of electricity called action potential
How is the message carried by the axon? Action potential - ion channels
I am a nerve cell that takes sensory information to the brain, stores memories, reach decisions and contol muscle activity? Neurons
I am the largest part of the neuron and control metabolism and maintenance Soma
I am tree like, transport messages from other neurons to the soma Dendrite
I transmit messages away from the Soma towards the cells the neuron talks to Axon
If a drug is an agonist what does it do Mimics or increases effects of neurotransmitters
IF a drug is an antagonist what is its effect Blocks effects of neurotransmitters
If a person sees a circle with dots and lines, but can't recognise the object as a clock, what are they suffering from and where in the brain is the deficit Visual Agnosia, Occipital Lobe
If you have some type of illness, which cells of the brain will typically respond Glial cells
I'm at the end of axons, and secrete neurotransmitters Terminal buttons
In simple terms, what does the autonomic ns do? regulates internal body environment such as breathing and functioning of heart beat
Information is transmitted along neurons by pulses of electricity called? action potential
Name 5 neuroimaging techniques and name their purpose PET, MRI, fMRI, CT, MEG
Name a disease occurs when the myelin sheath is destroyed multiple sclerosis
Name and describe 3 neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (learning, memory movement), Dopamine (arousal and mood,thought, physical), Serotonin & norepinephrine (autonomic stress response, arousal, mood,) GABA (main inhibitor), Glutamate (main excitatory), Endorphins (pain perception & relief)
Name some examples of drugs that are agonists black widow spider venom, L-Dopa, amphetamines, cocaine, anti-anxiety drugs, morphine and heroin
Name some examples of drugs that are antagonists botulinum poison, curare, anti-psychotic drugs, and anti-depressants
Name some nervous tissue cells neurons, glia, microglia, ependymal, oligodendrocytes
name some neurotransmitters acetylcholine (Ach), dopamine, seretonin and norepinephrine, GABA, glutamate and endorphins
Name some support cells of the PNS satellite and schwann cells
name some types of acetylcholine and their effect (agonist or antagonist) botulinum poison (antagonist), curare (antagonist)and black widow spider venom (agonist)
name some types of dopamine and their effect (agonist or antagonist) L-dopa (agonist), anti-psychotic drugs (antagonists), amphetamine (agonist), cocaine (agonist)
name some types of endorphins and their effect (agonist or antagonist) morphine and heroin (agonist), SIA - stress induced analgesia
name some types of GABA and glutamate and their effect (agonist or antagonist) Gaba - anti-anxiety drugs
name some types of serotonin and norepinephrine and their effect (agonist or antagonist) anti-depressants like prozac, zoloft and paxil. They are SSRI's.
Name the four principle parts of the neuron Soma, Axon, Dendrite, terminal buttons
Name the three types of neurons sensory. Motor and interneuron
Name two types of brain scans PET - positron emission tomography and fMRI - function magnetic resonance imaging
The brain and spinal cord are enclosed by membranes called? Meninges
The brain and spinal cord float in? Cerebrospinal fluid
The terminal button belongs to the presynaptic or postsynaptic neuron Presynaptic
True or false. Communicaton between a neuron is chemical? TRUE
True or false. Communicaton within a neuron is chemical? False. It is electrical
What are astrocytes? """BBCS"" Brace neurons. Barrier between capillaries and neurons. Control chemical environment of the brain (CNS). star- shaped cells. "
What are ependymal cells? line cavities of the brain and spinal cord. Circulate cerebrospinal fluid
what are ganglia? collections of cell bodies outside the NS
What are glia? cells that support neurons. Discard their waste, keep environment safe and insulate them
what are microglia? phagocytes that dispose of waste
What are neurons? nerve cells that are the NS messengers
What are oligodendrocytes? support cells that produce myelin sheath around nerve fibres in the CNS
What are some of the difficulties involved in studying brain injuries and interpreting their significance The extent of damage, variations in brain structure (regional), gender, brain complexity, intellectual ability etc
What are the 3 areas of the brain stem Pons, medulla and midbrain
What are the chemicals called that neurons release that go to furhter areas of the brain and give an example Neuromodulaters, endorphins
What are the different types of glia Astrocytes, Ependymal Cells, Schwann Cells,
What are the fibres that stick out of the cell body and receive information from other neurons? dendrites
What are the functions of the Nervous System Sensory input (changes=stimuli), integration (process, interpret, decide), Motor output (response)
What are the functions of the Nervous System? 1. Sensory input. 2. Integration. 3. Motor Output
what are the gaps called that are in the myelin sheath which lies along the axon? nodes of Ranvier
what are the group of transmitters invloved in pain perception and relief? endorphins
what are the major categories of neurotransmitters? biogenic amines, amino acids and peptides
What are the major regions of neurons? cell body. Dendrites and axons and axon terminals
What are the neurons made up of? 7 - Cell body, nucleus, dendrites, axon,myelin sheath, nodes of ranvier, terminal endings
What are the primary functions of the frontal lobe Movement, planning, changing strategies, self-awareness, evaluating emotionally related stimuli and spontaneous behaviour
What are the structural classifications of the Nervous System? Central Nervous System (CNS) - Brain and spinal cord and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - somatic and autonomic. Autonomic - Sympathetic and parasympathetic
What are the sub categories of the autonomic ns? sympathetic and parasympathetic
What are the sub categories of the somatic ns? None. It is the autonomic that has sub categories
What are the subdivisions of the efferent division? somatic and autonomic
What are the three major parts of the brain brain stem, cerebellum, cerebral cortex
what are the two phases of an electrical impulse? excitatory and inhibitory
What can be disrupted by damage to the association area of the left parietal lobe Reading, writing, understanding of speech, precise hand movements ie drawing
what can excessive amounts of glutamate do? neuron death
what causes an action potential? starting in the dendrite there are voltage changes across the cell membrane, reaching a threshold.
What cells produce myelin? schwann cells
What comprises the central nervous system? brain and spinal cord
What connects brain & CNS and enables spinal reflexes Spinal Cord
What connects the cerebral hemispheres Corpus Callosum
what could lack of GABA contribute to? epilepsy
What covers nerve fibres? schwann cells and nodes of Ranvier
What covers the surface of the cerebral hemispheres, consists of a thin layer of tissue and is often referred to as Grey Matter cereberal cortex
What do neuropsychologists study? relationship between brain and function
What do satellite cells do? protect neuron cell bodies
What do schwann cells do? form myelin sheath in PNS
what does dopamine do? impacts our thought processes, physical movement, arousal and moods.
what does seretonin and norepinephrine do? play a major role in mood disorders (depression), particularly in levels of arousal and mood
what does the axon do? transmits messages through the neuron AWAY from the cell
What does the parasympathetic system do? """rest and digest"" - controls body in rest situations"
What does the peripheral nervous system consist of? The nerves connecting CNS with sense organs, muscles and glands
What does the sympathetic ns do? """fight or flight"" - controls body in arousal situations"
What happens in the sensory association cortex information from primary sensory cortex is analysed, perception and memories are stored
What is a CT and when is it used Computerised topography uses xrays to collect slices of the brain and determine location of brain damage
What is a fMRI Scan and when is it used Uses magnetic fields and radio waves to provide a clear picture of brain function
What is a MEG and when is it used Detects magnetic field activity to study various brain functions
What is a MRI Scan and when is it used Uses magnetic fields and radio waves to provide a clear picture of brain structure,
What is a non-invasive way to investigate CNS activity EEG (electroencephalography)
What is a PET Scan and when is it used A Positron Emission Tomograhphy scan uses non-toxic radiocative material to measure activity rates in the brain
What is a synapse Where the termimal button of one neuron and the membrane of a another cell meets
What is a synapse? the junction between nerves
what is acetycholine involved in? learning and memory, and muscle movement
what is action potential? a change in the polarity inside the cell from negative to positive when the cell is generating a signal
What is an interneuron? Only in CNS.
What is another term for the motor division in the PNS? Efferent pathway - data comes FROM the CNS
What is another term for the sensory division in PNS? Afferent pathway - information goes TO the CNS
what is created when cells have an unequal distribution of charged ions? membrane potential
what is GABA? the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the NS
What is grey matter cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
What is integration? To process and interpret gathered information and decided next course of action
What is modularity? the idea that there are modules in the brain that are repsonsible for particular functions
What is motor output? A response to integrated stimuli which activates muscles or glands.
What is psychobiology? The study of the role of physiology and anatomy in the regulation and execution of behaviour
what is response called when a neuron responds to stimuli? irritability
what is resting potential? the nerve cell is not active. The cell inside is negatively charged
What is sensory input? Gathering information to monitor changes/stimuli occurring inside and outside the body.
What is SIA Stress Induced Analgesia
What is the afferent division Sensory ) nerve fibres taking info to CNS
What is the conduit for incoming sensory input and outgoing commands from brain to skeletal muscles? Somatic Nervous System
What is the control centre for entire nervous system The brain
What is the difference between gyri and fissures and why are they important Fissures are large grooves in the brain, gyri are the bulges. They help increase the surface area of the brain
What is the difference between Neuroglia and Neurons Neurons divide, most brains tumours involve glial cells
What is the efferent division Motor (info away from CNS)
What is the general term for the layer of nerves that connects the cerebral cortex to the other parts of the brain White Matter
What is the main excitatory neurotransmitter called? glutamate which is invloved in memory storage and pain perception
What is the primary function of the cerebellum Control and coordinate movements
What is the primary function of the cranial nerves They primarily serve the muscles and sense organs in the head and neck ie taste, chewing
What is the primary sensory function of the parietal lobe Perception of the body
what is the state of the plasma membrane when it is at rest? polarised
What is the study of the electrical potentials generated by the workings of the heart ECG (electrocardiography)
what is the term for a drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter? antagonist
what is the term for a drug that mimics or increases the effects of a neurotransmitter? agonist
what is the term that describes the neurons ability to transmit and impulse? conductivity
What makes up a neuron nerve cells, major regions -cell body - nucleus and metabolic centre,
what makes up the cns? brain and spinal cord
what possibly can deficient amounts of glutamate do? may explain schizophrenia
what sends messages to other neurons? axon terminals
What substance insulates axons Myelin
What technique is used to measure skeletal muscle activity? EMG (electromyography)
What three types of neuron are involved in the withdrawal reflex Sensory neurons, interneurpn, motor neuron
What type of symptoms can be caused by damage to the primary auditory cortex and auditory association areas? Primary Auditory - hearing loss. Left auditory -comprehension and speech difficulties. Right - difficulty recognising and locating non-speech sounds
What, primarily, is the result of damage to the right parietal lobe Perception eg inability to draw a complete picture
When an axon fires, a neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft, creating two different types of synapses. What are they Excitatory or inhibitory
Where are microglia and ependymal cells found? CNS
where are neuron cell bodies found? in the grey matter, nuclei in the white matter of CNS and the ganglia
Where are the primary auditory cortex and auditory association cortexes located Temporal Lobe
Which 3 areas of the cerebral cortex recieve information from the sensory organs Primary Visual Cortex, Primary Auditory Cortex, Primary Somatosensory cortex
Which areas are most usually damaged in car accidents forebrain, occipital lobe, temporal lobe
Which disease are high levels of dopamine associated with? schizophrenia
Which disease are low levels of dopamine associated with? Parkinsons
Which nerves are reponsible for information transmission throughout the nervous system Neurons
Which region of the cerebral cortex is involved with movement control Primary Motor Cortex
Why are EDR & GSR measurements relevant to the study of psychology. Skin conductance changes with positive and negative emotion, perceptual awareness and degree of thought
What does the Peripheral Nervous System do? assimilates data from both the external and internal environments for the brain via sensory neurons. Uses motor neurons to transmit messages from the brain to the body.
How are the autonomic and somatic nervous system different? The ANS regulates internal environment. Has sympathetic and parasympathetic sub categories. The SNS conveys messages from the CNS to skeletal muscles and from sensory receptors to the CNS.
Describe the Autonomic Nervouse System involuntary. Only made of motor neurons. Has two divisions - parasympathetic and sympathetic.
What reactions occur when the sympathetic nervous system is activated? fight or flight. Dilates pupils, heart beats faster. Digestion stops. Sweaty palms.
What reactions occur when the parasymphetic nervous system is activated? rest and digest. Heart rate slows. Digestion occurs. Dry palms. Slows breathing.
Describe the endocrine glandular system not part of the NS. Secretes hormons. Works with ANS and stress response, and 'animal' functions i.e. Sex, eating, metabolism, growth and reproduction
What does the hypothalamus do? controls pituitary gland. Rythym maker. Stimuli sensory system of the body - sleep, arousal, emotions, pain, homeostasis
What does the pituitary gland do? influences actions of other hormones and regulates growth
What does the thyriod do? metabolism,growth and maturation. Secreyes thyroid hormone.
What are is affected by the adrenal glands? metabolism. Fight or flight response with ANS.
What does the pancreas do? digestion and maintaining blood-sugar levels.
What is the significance of the physical proximity of the endocrine system to each other? learning for survival.
Where is the pituitary gland located? base of brain below optic nerve
What is the hypothalamus located? connected to pituitary gland. Anterior to amygdala
What does the pineal gland do? secretes melatonin - regulates sleep and wake cycles, and mood.
Name some hormones growth hormone (controls growth), prolactin (breastmilk), ACTH (adrenal glands), TSH (thyroid), FSH (reproduction), LSH (reproduction), ADH (urine concentration), Oxytocin (womb contraction and breastmilk)
What does the parathyroid gland do? controls calcium balance. Releases parathyroid hormone
Name two pathologies of the thyroid? Hyperthyroidism - weight loss, anxiety, nervousness, irritability, reduced menstrual flow. Hypothroidism - depression
What does testosterone do? growth of male sex organs, maturity. Variations in levels effect behaviour i.e. High levesl = more aggression
What does oestrogen do? growth and maturation of female sex organs, pelvis bone structure, uterus. Starts menstrual cycle.
How do drugs effect the CNS? mimic, alter (agonist) and block (antagonist) neurotransmitters.
What are the theories of motivation? DIOR - Drive, incentive, optimum arousal and reinforcement.
Name some motivations physiological - sex, hunger and thirst. Psychological - contact, self-esteem, love.
Where does motivation come from? a lack of the desired or needed, or a need for stimulus
What is motivation? a need or desire that energises and directs behaviour
What is bulimia nervosa An eating disordercharacterised by a loss of control of food intake
what is the general term for a state of arousal that involves facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings and tendencies towards action all shaped by cultural rules Emotion
Which structure in the midbrain is responsible for determining the emotional importance of incoming sensory information Amygdala
The gene that causes fat cells to produce lectin is called Ob
The function of lectin is to regulate the long term control of eating or activate eating on a meal by meal basis Long term control o f eating
"Which of the following statements is more accurate? A Obesity can be explained by a single all inclusive explanation or B
An eating disorder characterised by a severe decrease in eating is called bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa anorexia nervosa
A hormone that contributes to sexual motivation in both women and men is testosterone or progesterase Testosterone
Having a sexual interest that is directed towards either same sex people or opposite sex people is generally called sexual desire or sexual orientation? sexual orientation
A hormone that contributes to aggression, especially in men is called amalyase or testosterone? testosterone
Often members of a species show aggression towards other members of that same species, this phenomonen is called intraspecific agression or personal dominance driving intraspecific aggression
When one animal shows a threat gesture to another animal the other animal generally shows a reluctance gesture or an appeasement gesture appeasement gesture
Happiness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust and contempt are all examples of phylogenetic emotions or primary emotions Primary emotions
The process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed is called facial feedback or emotional feed forward Facial Feedback
Shachter and Singer argued that emotions were the result of undifferentiated arousal and heightened brain activity or an appropriate cognitive lable for that arousal They argued that emotion was both cognition assessment and perception of physical arousal
"True or False Motivation is best understood as a biological process"
What protein is released from fat cells and helps the hypothalmus control food intake lectin
What do we call the eating disorder characterised by binge and purge cycles Bulimia
True or false? Complications from anorexia can lead to death? TRUE
True or False? Men have on average a greater sex drive than women TRUE
True or False? There are compelling psychogical reasons for the development of homosexuality, such as the presence of a domineering mother or absence of a father figure FALSE
True or False? People everywhere are born with certain basic or primary emotions TRUE
True or False? Emotion involves the complex interplay of physiological, mental and cultural systems TRUE
True or False? Our appraisal of events is more likely to affect our emotional consequences than the event i tself TRUE
True or False? Research shows that facial expressions of primary emotions can be recognised with very high rates of accuracy by members of many different cultures TRUE
True or False? Areas of the occipital lobe, cerebellum and brain stem are involved in the experience of emotion FALSE
True or False? Emotions are easy to define, easy to understand and easy to capture in lab situations FALSE
Which theory asserts that most behaviours are as a result of genetics and are innate. Instinct theory
Which motivational theory asserts that motivation is a like a tea kettle and that we are driven to obtain homeostasis and give an example Drive Reduction Theory - eg get hungry, find food, eat food, no longer hungry
Which motivational theory asserts that our behaviours are not just about obtaining object of desire, but are a result of a need for stimulation. Give an example Optimum arousal - fidgeting out of boredom, thrill seeking, curiousity
Which theory of motivation focusses on external events that can induce states of arousal Incentive motivation
what are the 5 physiological mechanisms that are associated with hunger Stomach contractions, blood chemistry (glucose), hypothalamus, leptin, satiety
What are some of the psychological mechansisms associated with hunger external incentives, eating disorders,
What are some of the motivational factors involved associated with thirst Osmometric thirst, volumetric thirst, hypovolemic thirst, sodium thirst, alchohol, taste, distraction
What are some factors associated with sexual motivation learned associations, cultural factors, sexual norms, gender differences, fantasies,m hormones, pheromones, genetices
Which genetic syndrome is characterised by one functional (x) chromosome, feminine reproductive organs, reduced sex drive, low estrogen levels Turners Syndrome
Which genetic syndrome is characterised by an extra x chromosome, low testosterone levels, phenotypic males with reduced genitals and less body hair Klinefelters Syndrome
What are some psychological motivators associated with sex appearance, drive reduction, affection and attention, smell and direct contact, erotic stimuli and images
How many emotions did Izard isolate? 10
Which emotions did Izard find weren't present in infancy contempt, shame and guilt
Why do we suppose that emotion has a biological basis Because base emotions are present at birth
Where does the controversy arise within theories of emotion Does physiological arousal precede or follow emotional experience? Does thinking precede feeling?
Describe the James Lange theory That physiological activity precedes the emotional experience
Describe the Cannon-Bard Theory That emotion-triggering stimulus and body's arousal are simultaneous
What is the two-factor theory and who proposed it? Schacter and Singer proposed that physiology and cognitions create emotions
Which part of the nervous system is aroused during an emotional experience? autonomous
Are there physiological similarities between fear, excitement, love, boredom yes
Which early developing area of the brain focuses mostly on anger and rage and plays a central role in emotional processing o f sensory information amygdala
Name three of the neural bases of emotion Amygdala, septum, olfactory bulb, mammilary body, cingulated cortex, fornix, hippocampus
What is the Kluvy-Bucy syndrome No amygdalae/right left medical regions malfunction
What type of stimulus activate the amygdala positive and negative, intensely pleasurable music, hearing laughter and crying
Does negative emotional stimuli activate the left or right PFC Right
What do lesions in the ventromedial PFC cause
In which hemisphere i s emotionexpression processed and recognised by most people Right
Does cognition always precede emotion no
What is the difference between the thinking low and thinking high road Thinking low - emotions felt directly through amygdala (faster), thinking high - goes through cortex, more complex, goes through PFC, sensory cortex etc
Is the non-verbal language of emotion universal there are 6 basic expressions - fear, anger, happy, sad, surprise, disgust
How did Darwin explain facial expressions As a way of communicating before we had language
Name four motivation theories/theorists 1) James-Lange Theory 2) Cannon-Bard Theory 3) Two-Factor Theory (Schachter and Singer) 4) Zajonc and LeDoux
What happens when the Amygdala is removed? Show less fear, unable to recognise other non-fear emotions, tameness, more outgoing and adventurous
Can pleasurable music or erotic pictures activate the amygdala? Yes
What are the three areas of the pre-frontal cortex (PFC)? Dorsolateral PFC, Ventromedial PFC and Orbitofrontal PFC
Which are of the pre-frontal cortex is activated by positive emotional stimuli? Left PFC
Which are of the pre-frontal cortex is activated by negative emotional stimuli? Right PFC
What happens when lesions occur on the orbitofrontal PFC? Reduced inhibition of behaviour, impaired ability to translate judgements and conclusions about events into appropriate feelings and behaviours.
What happens when lesions occur on the ventromedial PFC? General failure to anticipate future positive or negative consequences of actions.
In most people, emotional expression and recognition is carried out in the ______ hemisphere? Right
If a photo is seen in one eye only, which eye is better to see with to obtain the emotion associated with the picture? Left eye
Does cognition always precede emotion? No. Eg. Subliminal messages act this way.
Created by: 1022960272