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Chapter 4 & 5


used to measure the rate of current flow in the circuit Ampere (A)
building blocks – made up of nearly 100 different particles - fundamental particles neutrons, protons & electrons Atom
energy – the energy that holds the electron in its shell, each electron, and each shell requires a different amount of energy Binding energy
a substance that consists of only one type of molecule Chemical compound
a continuous path for the flow of electric charges from the power source through one or more electric devices Circuit
an item in which electric charges will drift or flow through, charge Conductor
produced when a negatively charged electron flow toward a positive, the quantity of electrons flowing in a circuit Current
the spectrum of energies that includes radio waves, microwaves, visible light, x-rays, ultraviolet light, gamma rays and cosmic rays. The energy has both electric and magnetic properties Electromagnetic energy
a negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom Electron
a substance made up of only one type of atom an element have the same atomic number Element
the ability to do work Energy
the number of times per second that a crest passes a given point Frequency
plates coated with these fluorescent crystals and are used to expose radiographic film Intensifying screen
charged particle Ion
when a neutral atom gains or losses an electron the electric charges of protons and electrons are no longer equal and produce an atom with electric charge Ionization
the peak of the electric cycle Kilovolt peak (kVp)
the quantity of matter that makes up any physical object Mass
anything that occupies space and has shape or form Matter
– a measure of the rate of current flow across the tube that is measure in 1/1000 Milliampere (mA
when two or more atoms may combine chemically Molecules
a positively charge particle inside the nucleus of an atom Proton
the force or strength of the electrons flowing within an electric circuit Potential difference
a bundle of electromagnetic energy Photon
the process of changing alternating current into direct current to produce x-rays Rectification
any property of the circuit that opposes or hinders the flow of current Resistance (R)
when changes in field occur in the form of repeating waves Sine wave
the device used to produce the high voltage needed for x-ray production and consists of a primary and secondary coils usually iron core Transformer
unit used to measure potential difference Volt (V)
the distance between the crest & the crest of the wave Wavelength
radiation that when passing through the body tissue produces positively or negatively charged particles Ionizing radiation
unit used to measure resistance Ohm
energy in motion Kinetic energy
stored energy Potential energy
discrete bundles of energy Quanta
an uneven distribution of radiation intensity in the x-ray beam Anode heel effect
breaking radiation – created when an incoming electron is suddenly slowed down, changes direction and leaves the tungsten atom. The kinetic energy of the electron is converted to x-ray photon Bremsstrahlung radiation
created when an incoming electron interacts with the k-shell electron and knocks it out of orbit. The void is quickly filled with an L-shell electron and an x-ray photon is created Characteristic radiation
target contains two filaments one large & one small Dual focus
the vertical projection of the actual focal spot; affects image sharpness Effective focal spot
the high positive electric target that attracts the negatively charged electrons of the space charge Anode
the source of electrons at one end of the tube (cathode) and consists of a small coil Filament
the process of removing the long-wavelength photons from the x-ray beam Filtration
the tungsten focal area all around the beveled-edge target Focal track
disk shaped with beveled-edge target that rotates and dissipates the heat Rotating anode
the electrons that are removed from the outer orbit that is the source of free electrons for x-ray production Space charge
the slant of the anode surface Target angle
the process by which electrons are boiled off from the tungsten filament in the x-ray tube. Occurs when the filament is heated during the x-ray exposure. The electrons are then forced into the anode during the x-ray exposure creating x-rays Thermionic emission
a metal element; a large atom with 74 electrons in orbit around its nucleus Tungsten (W)
the precise area on the target that the negatively charged electrons are directed to Focal spot
made up of many different wavelengths or energies Heterogeneous
positive charged metal opposite of the cathode the electrons are directed to Target
the number of protons in an atom Atomic number
the sum of protons and neutrons in an atom Mass number
speed Velocity
the part of the atom that contains the neutrons and protons Nucleus
a neutral particle located inside the nucleus of an atom Neutron
Created by: mdtodd