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psychology exam 5

Health Psychology investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems
Psychoneuroimmunology the study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain
Stress A person's response to events that are threatening or challenging
Stressors circumstances and events that produce threats to our well being
Cataclysmic events strong stressors that occur suddenly, affecting many people at once (natural disasters like tornadoes)
Personal stressors Major life events that have immediate negative consequences that generally fade with time (death of a family member)
Background stressors everyday annoyances
Daily hassles cause minor irritations and may have long term ill effects if they continue (traffic jams, long lines)
Psychophysiological disorders Medical problems influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties
The General Adaptation Syndrome Model (GAS) Theory by Selye, that suggest that a person's response to a stressor consists of 3 stages: Alarm and mobilization, Resistance, Exhaustion
Alarm and mobilization occurs when people become aware of the presence of a stressor. Sympathetic nervous system becomes energized, helping a person cope with the stressor
Resistance body prepares to fight the stressor
Exhaustion a person's ability to adapt to the stressor declines to the point where negative consequences of stress appear: physical illness
Coping efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate
Emotion-focused coping People try to manage their emotions in the face of stress, seeking to change the way they feel about or perceive a problem (looking on the bright side)
Problem-focused coping attempts to modify the stressful problem or source of stress (going to the spa, starting a study group)
Learned Helplessness occurs when an individual decides that they have no control over the situation or unpleasant stimuli
Hardiness A personality characteristic that is associated with the ability to deal with stress
Resilience The ability to withstand, overcome, and actually thrive after profound adversity
Type A behavior pattern cluster of behaviors involving hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling driven
Type B behavior pattern Cluster of behaviors involving patience, cooperative, noncompetitive manner
Type D behavior patter "distressed"; insecurity, anxiety
Noncompliance Patients may fail to show up to appointments etc.
Reactance A disagreeable and cognitive reaction that results from the restriction of ones freedom
Creative nonadherence patients adjust a treatment prescribed by a physician, relying on their own medical judgement and experience
Positively framed messages a change in behavior will lead to a gain, emphasizing the benefits of carrying out a health-related behavior (ex. reduce your chances of getting cancer by wearing sunscreen)
Negatively framed messages highlight what you can lose by not preforming behavior (ex. if you don't wear sunscreen, you can get cancer)
Subjective well-being Peoples evaluations of their lives in terms of their thoughts and emotions
Created by: jfishlei