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Pelvic Girdle CH16

Pelvic girdle structure, function, false & true pelvis and motions

What makes up the pelvic girdle? Sacrum, coccyx & two the hip bones (ilium, ischium & pubis).
What joints & articulations are included in the pelvic girdle? Sacroiliac joints (2-Right & left, posterolaterally), the symphysis pubis (1-anteriorly), the lumbosacral joint (superiorly), intervertenral disk (1) & facets (2).
The pelvic girdle is also know as? Pelvis
What is the false pelvis? The bony area between the iliac crests & above the pelvic inlet (no organs here).
Where is the pelvic inlet? Between the sacral promontory (posteriorly) and the superior border of the symphysis pubis (anteriorly).
Are there pelvic organs within the false pelvis? No
What is the true pelvis? It lies between the pelvic inlet and the pelvic outlet.
What is the true pelvis also called? Lesser or minor pelvis.
What is the false pelvis also called? Greater or major pelvis.
Where is the pelvic outlet? Tip of coccyx & inferior surface of the symphysis pubis.
What does the pelvic cavity contain? GI tract, urinary tract, reproductive organs (forms the birth canal in females).
What makes up the pelvic cavity? The true pelvis.
Describe the pelvic girdle in males Pelvic cavity is heart shaped. Sharp pubic arch, walls more verticle, taller & more funnel shaped.
Describe the pelvic girdle in females Sacrum - shorter, and less curved (funnel shaped). Pelvic arch is wider & more rounded. Walls not as verticle.
What is the abbreviation for sacroiliac joint? SI joint
Where is the SI joint? Between the sacrum & ilium (lateral to each).
What type of joint is the SI joint? Synovial = synovial lining, capsule Nonaxial Plane joint irregular surfaces (lock the 2 surfaces together).
What is the function (fx)of the SI joint? Transmit body weight through the spine to the pelvis in the lower extremities.
Nutation Sacral flexion, base (superior) moves anterior/inferior.
Counternutation Sacral extension, base (superior) moves posterior/superior.
Sacrum Wedge shaped and consists of five fused sacral vertebrae.
Where is the sacrum located? Between the two hip bones & makes up the posterior border of the bony pelvis.
Base of the sacrum Superior surface of S1.
Promontory of the sacrum Ridge projecting along the anterior edge of the body of S1.
Superior articular process of the sacrum Located posteriorly on the base, it articulates with the inferior articular process of L5.
Ala of the sacrum Lateral flared wings that are actually fused transverse processes.
Foramina of the sacrum Located on the anterior (pelvic) & dorsal surfacesare four pair of foramina. They serve as the exit for the anterior and posterior divisions of the sacral nerves. The anterior foramina are larger.
Auricular surface (auricular latin for earlike)of the sacrum Named because its shape is similar to the external ear. It is located on the lateral surface of the sacrum & articulates with the ilium. The irregular surface assists in locking the two surfaces together, providing greater stability.
Pelvic surface of the sacrum Concave anterior surface.
Ilium Superior part of the hip bone.
Iliac tuberosity Large roughened area between the posterior portion of the iliac crest and the auricular surface (attachment for interosseous ligament).
What serves as the attachment for interosseous ligament? Iliac tuberosity
Auricular surface of the ilium It is located inferior and anterior to the iliac tuberosity.
Iliac crest Superior ridge of the ilium, the bony area felt when you place your hands on your hips.
Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) Posterior projection of the iliac crest & serves as an attachment for the posterior sacroiliac ligament.
Posterior inferior iliac spine (PIIS) Lies inferior to the PSIS and serves as an attachment for the sacrotuberous ligament.
What serves as an attachment for the posterior sacroiliac ligament? PSIS
What serves as an attachment for the posterior sacroiliac ligament? PIIS
What is the bony area felt when you place your hands on your hips? Iliac Crest
Greater sciatic notch Formed by the ilium superiorly & the ilium & ischium inferiorly.
Greater sciatic foramen Formed from the greater sciatic notch by ligamentous attachments. The sciatic nerve passes through this opening.
Sacrotuberous ligament Sacrum to ischial tuberosity. Forms the posterior medial border of the foramen.
Sacrospinous ligament Sacrum to ischial spine. Forms the inferior border of the foramen.
Where does the sciatic nerve pass through? Greater sciatic foramen
Ischial body makes up all of the ischium superior to the tuberosity.
Lesser sciatic notch of the ischium Smaller concavity located on the posterior body between the greater sciatic notch & the ischial tuberosity.
Ischial spine Located on the posterior body betweenthe greater sciatic & lesser sciatic notches. It provides attachment for the sacrospinous ligament.
What provides attachment for the sacrospinous ligament? Ischial spine
Ischial tuberosity The blunt, rough projection on the inferior part of the body. It is a weight-bearing surface when you are sitting.
Anterior/posterior sacroiliac ligament Supports joint. Broad, flat ligament on the anterior (pelvic) surface connecting the ala & pelvic surface of the sacrum to the auricular surface of the ilium.
Seated flexion Trunk forward, ilium follow so sacrum posterior = sacral extension = sacral counternutation.
Seated extension Trunk extension, ilium follow, so sacrum opposit goes anterior = nutation.
Hip flexion Ilium does opposite (posterior), sacrum opposite (anterior)= nutation
Hip extension Ilium does opposite (anterior), sacrum opposite (posterior)= counternutation
Trunk same = ilium
Trunk opposite = Sacrum
Pubic symphysis Joins the right and left sides of the the pubic bones anteriorly. A fibrocartilage disk lies between the two bones.
What kind of joint is the pubic symphysis? Amphiarthrodial (little movement)
What ligaments make up the pubic symphysis? Superior pubic ligament & inferior pubic ligament.
Superior pubic ligament Attaches to the pubis tubercles on each side of the body and strengthens the superior & anterior portions of the joint.
Inferior pubic ligament Attaches between the two inferior rami. Strengthens the inferior portion of the joint.
Pubis body Main portion of the pubic bone has superior and inferior projections (ramus).
Superior ramus of the pubis Superior projections of the pubic body.
Inferior ramus of the pubis Inferior projections of the pubic body that provides attachment for the inferior pubic ligament.
Tubercle of the pubis Projects anteriorly on the superior ramus near the midline & provides attachment for the superior pubic ligament.
Lombosacral Joint 5th lumbar vertebra & 1st sacral vertebra. There is a body w/disk between, The vertebrae articulate @ the articular process es (inferior of L5 & superior of S1)
Iliolumbar Ligament Attaches on the transverse process of L5 to lateral inner lip of the posterior/superior portion of the iliac crest.
Lumbosacral Ligament Attaches on the transverse process of L5 to the ala of the sacrum. "wings" = lateral/bilateral
Lumbosacral Angle 1)Draw line parallel to ground 2)Draw line parallel to base of sacrum (flat surface)
Increased lordosis Increased lumbosacral angle (back motion) (Normal 30 degrees)
Decreased lordosis Decreased lumbosacral angle (back motion) (Normal 30 degrees)
What happens to L5 with increased lordosis and increased lumbosacral angle? L5 has tendency to slide anterior - blocked by spinal ligaments.
Pelvic girdle motion: Anterior Tilt Pelvis tilts forward; ASIS lowers anteriorly and PSIS elevates.
Pelvic girdle motion: Posterior Tilt Pelvis tilts backward; ASIS elevates and PSIS lowers posteriorly.
How to stay upright if pelvis tilts forward (anterior tilt) Something must go backward = trunk extension
Anterior Tilt (combination movements) Trunk extension, increased lordosis & hip flexion.
Posterior Tilt (combination movements) Trunk flexion, decreased lordosis & hip extension.
Lateral Tilt (unsupported side) One iliac crest is higher then the other; not level. Lateral bending (to supported side) Adduction - weight bearing side / Abduction - non-weight bearing side.
Pelvic Rotation (forward/anterior) Rotation in a transverse plane/vertical axis (rotation to opposite side) medial rotation - weight bearing side.
Pelvic Rotation (backward/posterior) Rotation in a transverse plane/vertical axis (rotation to opposite side) lateral rotation - weight bearing side.
Force Couples of pelvic girdle: Anterior Tilt Back extensors & hip flexors.
Force Couples of pelvic girdle: Posterior Tilt Trunk flexors (abdominals) & hip extensors (hamstrings & gluteus maximus).
Force Couples of pelvic girdle: Lateral Tilt Quadratus lumborum & erector spinae.
Created by: srussel



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