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Patient Care Test #3

Ch 19, 20, 21

unexpected or sudden occasion; an urgent or pressing need emergency
application of external electrical shock to restore normal cardiac rhythm and rate Automatic External Defibrillation (AED)
nosebleed; hemorrhage from the nose Epistaxis
escape of blood from the vessels; bleeding hemorrhage
a general term that indicates a failure of the circulatory system to support vital body function shock
temporary suspension of consciousness as a result of generalized cerebral ischemia; fainting syncope
disorganized cardiac rhythm ventricular fibrillation
illusion of movement; sensation as if the external world were revolving around the patient or as if the patient were revolving in space vertigo
separation of the layers of a surgical wound; may be partial, or superficial only, or complete, with disruption of all layers dehiscence
List 3 Objectives of First Aid: Preserving life, avoiding further harm to the patient, and obtaining appropriate medical assistance as quickly as possible
Name 6 Priorities when working with patients in emergency situations: 1. ensure an open airway 2. Control bleeding 3. Take measures to prevent or treat shock 4. Attend to wounds or fractures 5. Provide emotional support 6. Continually reevaluate and follow up appropriately
the movement to have automatic external defibrillators available in public places, which has resulted in significant reduction in mortality from cardiac arrhythmia public access defibrillation (PAD)
Name the 2 primary types of external defibrillators: 1. Fully automatic 2. Semiautomatic
type of external defibrillator that analyzes the patient's cardiac rhythm, determines whether defibrillation is necessary, and, if necessary, delivers a shock Fully automatic
type of external defibrillator that analyzes the patient's cardiac rhythm, determines whether defibrillation is necessary, and, if needed, advises the operator to deliver a shock by pushing a button Semiautomatic
List the four levels of consciousness: 1. alert and conscious 2. patient is drowsy but can be roused to response with loud speaking or gentle physical contact 3. patient is unconscious and reacts only to painful stimuli 4. patient is comatose & unresponsive to virtually all stimuli
Findings in an alert or drowsy patient that can signify a deteriorating head injury include: irritability, lethargy, slowing pulse rate, and slowing respiratory rate
What should the radiologic technologist do if a deteriorating head injury is recognized? 1. Maintain an open airway while moving the patient as little as possible 2. Stop the procedure & obtain medical assistance quickly 3. Obtain vital signs while waiting for help to arrive
Name 4 types of shock: 1. Hypovolemic 2. Cardiogenic 3. Neurogenic 4. Vasogenic
type of shock caused by loss of blood or tissue fluid Hypovolemic
type of shock caused by a variety of cardiac disorders, including myocardial infarction Cardiogenic
type of shock caused by spinal anesthesia or damage to the upper spinal cord Neurogenic
type of shock caused by sepsis (infection), deep anesthesia, or anaphylaxis Vasogenic
Name 2 types of shock that are most likely to be encountered by a radiologic technologist: Hypovolemic and anaphylactic shock
Name of a special type of vasogenic shock that can result from a reaction to contrast media; usually connected with the administration of iodinated contrast media Anaphylactic shock
Factors that can contribute to the likelihood that a patient will experience shock (or to the degree of shock experienced): sudden change in body temperature, pain, stress, and anxiety
Name some signs & symptoms that may indicate that a patient might be going into shock: restlessness, apprehension or general anxiety, tachycardia, decreasing blood pressure, cold and clammy skin, and pallor
What should the radiologic technologist do if signs & symptoms of shock are recognized? 1. Stop the procedure 2. Ensure maintenance of the patient's body temperature 3. Call for medical assistance 4. Measure the patient's vital signs while waiting for assistance
True or False: Contrast media should not be administered without first taking an adequate history. True
Mild reactions to contrast media are similar to other allergic reactions and include: localized itching and urticaria (hives), nausea, and vomiting
More serious reactions to contrast media that are indicative of a systemic reaction include: generalized itching & hives
The most serious reactions to contrast media include: laryngeal edema, shock, and cardiac arrest
What should the radiologic technologist do when a reaction to contrast media is recognized? Notify the physician at once and take vital signs. **Start CPR on patients who suffer cardiac arrest.**
a condition in which excessive insulin is present (low blood sugar) hypoglycemia
Patients who are experiencing this condition are intensely hungry, weak and shaky and may sweat excessively. They also may become confused and irritable, sometimes to the point of aggression and mild hostility. insulin shock
What should the radiologic technologist do when insulin shock is recognized? 1. Any form of carbohydrate should be administered as long as the patient is conscious. 2. Encourage the patient to sit quietly until the carbohydrate intake has had a chance to take effect (10-15 min.)
List some examples of carbohydrates that are given to relieve insulin shock: glucose tablets, orange juice sweetened with sugar, a sugared soft drink, or a candy bar
a condition of excessive sugar in the blood and is the characteristic typically associated with diabetes Hyperglycemia
List some signs & symptoms of hyperglycemia: excessive thirst and urination, dry mucosa, rapid and deep breathing, and drowsiness and confusion
What should the radiologic technologist do when excessive hyperglycemia is recognized? Since this condition leads to diabetic coma if left untreated, the technologist should get medical help.
True or False: Patients with asthma seem to have respiratory distress in particularly stressful situations, such as they might experience in a radiology department. True
A patient in respiratory distress generally exhibits this as a result of dilatation of bronchi on inspiration and collapse on exhalation. wheezing
What should the radiologic technologist do when respiratory distress is recognized? 1. Stop the procedure & assist the patient to a sitting position to support easier respiration and attempt to reassure the patient 2. If the patient has medication available, allow the patient to use it. If not, medical assistance should be obtained.
List some warning signs of a stroke: paralysis on one or both sides, slurred speech or complete loss of speech, extreme dizziness, loss of vision (particularly if only in one eye), and complete loss of consciousness
What should the radiologic technologist do when warning signs of a stroke are recognized? 1. Stop the procedure and report the signs or symptoms to a nurse or physician 2. Do not move the patient before further medical assessment can be made 3. If patient loses consciousness & is not breathing, perform CPR
If possible, what position should the patient be put in to prevent aspiration of vomitus? lateral decubitus
What instruction should a patient with epistaxis be given? 1. Patient should lean forward and pinch the affected nostril against the midline nasal cartilage 2. If gentle pressure fails, a moist compress also may be applied 3. If these actions are not effective within 15 min, obtain medical assistance
a physical or mental warning of an impending seizure aura
What should the radiologic technologist do in the event that a patient is falling? 1. Attempt to minimize the physical impact of the fall to the extent possible 2. Proceed with appropriate emergency action as indicated by the patient's condition
What should the radiologic technologist do when wound dehiscence is recognized? 1. Cover the area with a sterile dressing, but DO NOT attempt to replace the tissues inside the wound 2. Place the patient in a seated position, somewhat bent forward to relieve pressure on the wound 3. Obtain medical attention quickly
List some types of major medical emergencies: head injuries, shock, diabetic crisis, respiratory distress or arrest, cardiac arrest
List some types of minor medical emergencies: nausea and vomiting, epistaxis, syncope and vertigo, seizures, falls, and problems with wounds
any substance that, when taken into a living organism, may modify one or more of its functions drug
the science concerned with the origin, nature, effects, and uses of drugs pharmacology
a classified system of names nomenclature
List 3 ways in which a drug may be classified: 1. name 2. action 3. method of legal purchase
List the 3 types of names for drugs: 1. chemical name 2. generic name 3. trade name
identifies the actual chemical structure of the drug chemical name
drug name that is usually descriptive of the chemical structure but is not protected as is a trademark; also called the nonproprietary name generic name
the name given to a drug manufactured by a specific company; also called trademark, trade name, and proprietary name brand name
an annual publication that lists drugs by both their generic and brand names; also gives the accepted uses, side effects, contraindications and doses for available drugs Physicians Desk Reference (PDR)
when drugs that have similar chemical actions are grouped together, they are referred to as: drug families
drugs that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness analgesic
Created by: kkant