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Language and Thought

Midterm

QuestionAnswer
father of psycholinguistics. brought focus to spoken language as opposed to written language deSaussure
What is happening now Synchronic
What has happened over time Diachronic
Linguistic units have meaning only in relation to each other Structural Approach
Where words can go in a sentence Syntagmatic
words are given meaning also by the words that could have replaced them (as in gallon vs quart) paradigmatic
Used introspection as method; father of psychology Wundt
Took psychology one step closer to behaviorism by researching how people learn new things, remember things Ebbinghaus
Brought behaviorism to the forefront of psychology - - anti-introspection Watson
Conditioning can explain everything. Stimulus-response method. Skinner
Psycholinguist. Opposed Skinner. Language cannot be learned just by hearing it. Universal grammar. Chomsky
communication is the transmission of information, whether intentional or not Harley
Animal has communicated when it influences the behavior or nervous system state of another animal Dawkins
Transmission of information from which the sender benefits in some way from the response Slater
Studied bee communication Karl Von Frisch
Believed human and animal communication differed in the presence or absence of universal grammar Chomsky
Language is used for doing things Clark
Laid out design features of human language (all necessary for it to qualify) Hockett
Syntax and semantics operate separately. Sentences can be syntactically correct but make no sense. They can be semantically correct but make no sense grammatically. Chomsky's Autonomy of Syntax Hypothesis
Chinese reading room Searle
Click Migration Task - does grammar influence comprehension Garrett
Replicated click migration with methodology changes: phrases same length and text in front of participants Reber & Anderson
Proposed the theory of modularity Fodor
Modular process that outputs a shallow linguistic representation Input System
non-mandatory, makes deeper meaning from shallow linguistic representations Central Processing
Phoneme restoration effect (against modularity) Warren 1970
Perverse sentences: people understand them as they would usually be meant. Against modularity. 1978 Fillenbaum
Spliced cough in beginning of the word, showing processing can't be totally bottom-up. Phoneme restoration extension. Against modularity. Warren and Warren 1970
Uninterpreted Sentences. People good at paraphrasing pragmatic sentences than non-pragmatic sentences Wason 1979
Normal Prose, Syntactic Prose, Random Word Order Prose. Word monitoring task. Hardest to notice the target word in random word order sentence. Against Modularity bc if it were bottom-up, all sentences would be understood sound-first. Marslen-Wilson & Tyler, 1980
Cohort Model of Word Recognition. A number of possible words, narrow it down as sound progresses. Marslen-Wilson and Tyler, 1980
Phonetic restoration appears to be the result of what our top down expectation is, combined with the acoustic sound confirming our expectation. Samuel 1981
Multiple access. Both meanings of ambiguous word accessed in processing. Held for 700 ms. Swinney 1979
Does visual system influence language processing? Apple on towel. Is language system modular? NO Tanenhaus 1995
Does visual system influence language processing? Pour egg in bowl. Is language system modular? NO - - A subtle detail in what you hear can influence where you look. Chambers 2004
High span, medium span, and low span readers. High span working memory allows readers to keep multiple meanings in mind for longer periods. - Individual differences in modularity Miyake 1996
pro-modular. “The evidence examined by” and “The defendant examined by” - - examined holds two meanings. Participants reading either sentence were slowing at the "by", though, showing that both meanings were picked up in both sentences Ferreira & Clifton 1986
requires participants to press a button to get the next word in a sentence, allowing researchers to time how long it takes participants to understand each word. Moving Window Paradigm
Construction: what is being said; Utilization: how we interpret based on context Clark & Clark
Direct Comprehension (author?) Clark & Clark
act of speaking; intention: to have an effect speech act
unit of meaning within the utterance that reflects the speaker’s intentions. propositional content
given info and new info. What is known and what is being added. thematic content
speech acts theory Austin (1962); Searle (1967)
- Phonetic Act: making a sound (words) - Illocutionary Act: Speaker’s intentions - Perlocutionary Act: What is the effect that is intended on the listener; addressee’s subsequent action Speech Acts Theory
conditions that say how, where and by whom speech acts can be performed felicity conditions
Maxims (when, who) Grice 1975
implications of a speaker’s utterance that the listener must construct in order to use the utterance as intended. conversational implicatures
Indirect Speech Acts (who?) Searle
Categories of indirect speech acts Gibbs
sarcastic expressions study Gibbs 1986
most common speech error: pause; 5-65% of speech time; faster speakers just pause less Goldman-Eisler
Number of word choices affects pausing; college professors in different departments Schachter
uh and um are words. people use them just as they would any conventional word Clark & Fox Tree
Production Steps theory Garrett 1975
Ordinal Conflict Technique for generating speech errors AND phonemic bias technique Baars
Speech error experiment: sex and shock Motley 1985
Slips that make real words Lexical Bias
Slips related to what's happening currently Semantic bias
Created by: mudskipper27