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Sherer Ch8

science that deals with incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population epidemiology
graphical representation of observed effects of radiation exposure in relation to dose received radiation dose-response curve
point at which a response or raction to an increasing stimulation occurs threshold
any radiation dose will produce a biologic effect nonthreshold relationship
diagnostic radiography follows what kind of curve linear quadratic nonthreshold curve
the equation that best fits the data has terms that depend on dose and also dose squared linear quadratic
implies biologic response to ionizing radiation is directly proportional to the dose linear nonthreshold
probability of causation of excess fatal cancer in Japanese atomic bombing survivors 5% per Sv
problem with linear model may overestimate risk at low doses
most important late stochastic somatic effect caused by exposure to ionizing radiation cancer
how long may radiation induced cancers take to develop 5+ years
radium girls somatic effects osteoporosis, osteogenic sarcoma, carcinoma of epithelial cells of nasopharynx & sinus
bones most frequently effected in radium girls pelvis, femur, mandible
doses radium girls said to experienced 5Gy +
uranium miners primary damage lung cancer from inhalation of radon within mines
what % of uranium miners succumbed to lung cancer 50%
EqD miners estimated to have recieved 10Sv+
diseases of early radiologists aplastic anemia, leukemia, cancerous lesions on hands
Estimated doses to early radiologists 1Gy/yr
Thorotrast late effects liver and spleen cancer, angiosarcomas & biliary duct carcinomas. 15-20 yr latent period
infants treated for enlarged thymus late effects thyroid cancer, 20 years later
postpartum mastitis late effects breast cancer
children of Marshall Islanders thyroid cancer
Average dose for Atolls from fallout 12 Gy
effects on japanese atomic bomb survivors leukemia, thyroid, breast, lung, & bone cancers
what is typical time period for leukemia 2 years after initial exposure, highest level between 7-10yrs, declines to almost zero @ 30 years
solid tumor incubation period usually takes 10 years to occur
what kind of relationship exists between radiation dose and radiation-induced leukemia? linear
radiation induced leukemia follows what kind of curve? linear non-threshold dose curve
radiation dose inflicted on hiroshima populations consisted of what? 50% gamma radiation & 50% neutrons
radiation dose inflicted on nagasaki populations consisted of what? 10% neutrons, 90% gamma radiation
radiation induced leukemia and solid tumors most attributable to what type of radiation gamma
more than ___ different countries received fallout from Chernobyl accident in the 10 days after the accident 20
what was used to block the uptake of Iodide-131 in children in the area of the chernobyl accident potassium iodide
approx. time of appearance for radiation induced thyroid malignancies 10-20 years
most pronounced health effect from chernobyl thyroid cancer
life span of animals shortened after exposure to non-lethal doses of radiation nonspecific life span shortening
radiologic technologists starting work after what year showed no increased risk of cancer death 1940
Created by: jen.studer