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Sherer Ch7

somatic & genetic damage factors quantity of ionizing radiation to which subject is exposed, ability of ionizing radiation to cause ionization of human tissue, amount of body area exposed, specific body parts exposed
effects are cell-killing and directly related to dose received. Nonstochastic (deterministic) somatic effects
mutational or randomly occurring biologic somatic changes independent of dose Stochastic (probabilistic) somatic effects
consequence of low doses delivered over a long interval of time. Late radiation effects
Appear within minutes, hours, days or weeks of exposure, substantial dose necessary to produce, severity of fx is dose related Early Nonstochastic (Deterministic) Somatic Effects
High Dose fx nausea, fatigue, erythema, epilation, blood disorders, intestinal disorders, fever, dry and moist desquamation, depressed sperm count in male, temp or permanent sterility in male and female, injury to CNS
When whole body is exposed to dose of __manifestations occur in succession 6 Gy
what are collection of early somatic symptoms called acute radiation syndrome (ARS)
what is another name for Acute Radiation Syndrome radiation sickness
Occurs in humans after whole-body reception of large doses of radiation over a short period of time ARS
3 forms of ARS hematopoietic syndrome gastrointestinal syndrome cerebrovascular syndrome
4 major response stages of ARS prodromal, latent, manifest, recovery or death
occurs within hours after whole body absorbed dose of 1Gy+ prodromal phase
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, & leucopenia prodromal phase
prodromal phase usually has an abnormal decrease in white corpuscles, what is the count? below 5000/mm3
lasts about 1 week, no symptoms occur latent period
when symptoms become visible to hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, or cerebrovascular system manifest illness
symptoms include apathy, confusion, decrease in # of blood cells & platelets, fluid loss, dehydration, epilation, exhaustion, vomiting, severe diarrhea, fever, headaches, infection, hemorrhage, and cardiovascular collapse manifest illness
after whole body dose of__, exposed persons pass through first 3 stages but show less severe symptoms than those seen after super-lethal doses of __ 2-3Gy , 6-10Gy
survivors are late and stochastic effects Hiroshima & Nagasaki bombings
outcome of 444 people at Chernobyl plant 2 died instantly, 29 died within 3 months (6Gy+ doses), 203 hospitalized within 2 days after for rad sickness
What is threshold for Hematopoietic Syndrome – “bone marrow syndrome” whole body dose 1-10Gy
Hematopoietic Syndrome causes what? causes # of red & white cells and platelets to decrease, decrease in # of bone marrow stem cells
when death occurs from Hematopoietic Syndrome, it is consequence of what? bone marrow destruction
death may occur __ after irradiation in sensitive human subjects receiving __, sooner with more dose. 6-8 weeks, 2Gy
if dose is sublethal, how long does recovery take? many recover 3-6 months after exposure
doses in excess of __ benefited from bone marrow transplants 5Gy
Gastro Intestinal Syndrome threshold threshold dose 6Gy, peaks after dose of 10Gy
without medical support, 6-10Gy dose may die __ after exposure 3-10 days
Impact of dose on survival time with gastro intestinal syndrome survival time does not change with dose in this syndrome
Impact of dose on survival time with hematopoietic syndrome survival time increases with smaller doses
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, loss of appetite lethargy, anemia, leucopenia, hemorrhage, infection, electrolyte imbalance, emaciation manifest symptoms of GI syndrome
When does prodromal stage occur with GI syndrome? within a few hours of dose
death occurs primarily because of what with GI syndrome primarily because of catastrophic damage to epithelial cells of GI tract.
how long does death take with GI syndrome? death within 3-5 days after irradiation as result of infection, fluid loss, electrolytic imbalance.
what is most severely affected part of GI tract small intestine
threshold for Cerebrovascular syndrome results from doses of 50Gy or more
prodromal stage include excessive nervousness, confusion, severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of vision, burning sensation of skin, loss of consciousness Cerebrovascular Syndrome
latent period lasts up to 12 hours Cerebrovascular Syndrome
how long does failure of CNS and cardiovascular systems take to cause death? minutes
ultimate cause of death with Cerebrovascular syndrome elevated fluid content in the brain
signifies whole body dose of radiation can be lethal to 50% of population within 30 days LD 50/30
regardless of treatment, whole-body equivalent doses of over __ considered fatal. 12 Gy
which cells have greater chance for recovery? Oxygenated or hypoxic? Oxygenated
which cells are more effected by low-LET radiation Oxygenated or hypoxic? oxygenated
what % of radiation damage is irreparable 10%
shrinkage of organs and tissues, result of cellular death atrophy
occurs if organ or tissue recovery fails to occur necrosis
first known advocate of radiation protection William Herbert Rollins
radiation protection warning from William Herbert Rollins radiopaque glasses, enclose x-ray tube housing, irradiate only areas of interest
3 layers of skin tissue epidermis, dermis (connective tissue), hypodermis (subcu. Fat & connective tissue)
appx __ of body’s surface skin cells are replaced daily by stem cells form underlying basal layer 2%
single absorbed dose of __ can cause erythema within __ 2Gy, 24-48 hours
shedding of outer layer of skin desquamation
how long does desquamation take? Usually takes 1-2 weeks, generally starts as moist and then dry
Used to treat tumor, required very high ESE to treat tumor. Would cause erythema & desquamation orthovoltage radiation therapy treatment (200-300kVp)
what regular procedures in the radiology department can produce erythema cardiovascular or therapeutic interventional procedures using high-level fluoro for extended periods of time
development of sperm from stem cell takes __ 3-5 weeks
most radiosensitive sized ova intermediate sized ova
reduction of number of sperm that leads to depletion of mature sperm maturation depletion
when temporary sterility results, how long does it take to manifest? infertility will begin 2 months after radiation because the maturing cells present.
precursor to all cells in hematopoietic system pluripotential stem cell
most pronounced effect of radiation on system is? reduction of number of blood cells in peripheral circulation
decrease of stem cells in bone marrow manifests itself as? lowered mature circulating blood cells
- chromosome map taken of the human cell nucleus during metaphase karotype
Created by: jen.studer