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Psychology Chapter 2

Stack #47842

QuestionAnswer
A descriptive research technique in which the effort is focused on a single case, usually an individual. A case study
The principle that personal information obtained from a participant in research or therapy should not be revealed without the individual’s permission. Confidentiality
An uncontrolled variable that changes along with the independent variable. Confounding variable
A statistic that indicates whether two variables vary together in a systematic way; correlation coefficients vary from +1.00 to –1.00. Correlation
At the conclusion of an experimental session, informing the participants about the general purpose of the experiment, including any deception that was involved. Debriefing
The behavior that is measured or observed in an experiment. Dependent variable
Methods designed to observe and describe behavior. Descriptive research
Mathematical techniques that help researchers describe their data. Descriptive statistics
Neither participants nor research observers are aware of who has been assigned to the experimental and control groups; it’s used to control for both subject and experimenter expectancies. Double-blind study
A technique in which the investigator actively manipulates the environment to observe its effect on behavior. Experimental research
The extent to which results generalize to other situations or are representative of real life. External validity
The aspect of the environment that is manipulated in an experiment. It must consist of at least two conditions. Independent variable
Mathematical techniques that help researchers decide whether data are representative of a population or whether differences among observations can be attributed to chance. Inferential statistics
The principle that before consenting to participate in research, people should be fully informed about any significant factors that could affect their willingness to participate. Informed consent
The extent to which an experiment has effectively controlled for confounding variables; internally valid experiments allow for the determination of causality. Internal validity
A descriptive research technique that records naturally occurring behavior as opposed to behavior produced in the laboratory. Naturalistic observation
Definitions that specify how concepts can be observed and measured. Operational definition
An inactive, or inert, substance that resembles an experimental substance. Placebo
A technique ensuring that each participant in an experiment has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions in the experiment. Random assignment
A procedure guaranteeing that everyone in the population has an equal likelihood of being selected for the sample. Random sampling
When behavior changes as a result of the observation process. Reactivity
A multistep technique that generates empirical knowledge—that is, knowledge derived from systematic observations of the world. Scientific method
Experimental participants do not know to which condition they have been assigned (e.g., experimental versus control); it’s used to control for subject expectancies. Single-blind study
An indication of how much individual scores differ or vary from the mean. Standard deviation
A descriptive research technique designed to gather limited amounts of information from many people, usually by administering some kind of questionnaire. Survey
A measure of how much the scores in a distribution of scores differ from one another. Variability
The four major steps in the scientific method. Observe, Detect regularities, Generate a hypothesis, Observe
Animals used in a study are called ---. Subjects
Humans used in a study are called ---. Participants
Someone in a study who acts like a participant, but really knows what is going on, and has been told what to do and say. A confederate
Created by: melodious88