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Chap. 7 & 8

Introduction to Sociology

QuestionAnswer
deviance the recognized violation of cultural norms
crime the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law
social control attempts by society to regulate peoples thoughts and behavior
crimnal justice system the organizations - police, courts, prison officals - that respond to alledged violations of the law
labeling theory the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions
stigma a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a persons self-concept and social identity
medicalization of deviance the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
white-collar crime crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations
corporate crime the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
organized crime a business supplying illegal goods or services
hate crime a criminal act against a person or a persons property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
crimes against the person (violent crimes) crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others
crimes against property (property crimes) crimes that involve theft of money or property belonging to others
victimless crimes violations of law in which there are no obvious victims
plea bargaining a legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendents guilty plea
retribution an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime
deterrence the attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment
rehabilitation a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses
societal protection rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution
criminal recidivism later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes
community-based corrections correctional programs operating within society at large rather than behind prison walls
social stratification a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
social mobility a change in position within the social hierarchy
caste system social stratification based on ascription, or birth
class system social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
meritocracy social stratification based on social merit
status consistency the degree of uniformity in a persons social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
structural social mobility a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due to changes in society itself then to individual numbers
ideology cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality
Davis-Moore thesis the assertion that social stratification exists in every society because it has beneficial consequences for the operation of society
capitalists people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
proletarians people who sell their labor for wages
alienation the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
blue-collar occupations lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor
white-collar occupations higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity
socioeconomic status (SES) a composite ranking based in various dimensions of social inequality
conspicuous consumption buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
income earnings from work or investments
wealth the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts
intragenerational social mobility a change in social position occuring during a person's lifetime
intergenerational social mobility upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents
relative poverty the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more
absolute poverty a lack of resources that is life-threatening
feminization of poverty the trend of women making up increasing proportion of the poor
Created by: Shanti2
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