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Sherer Ch5

what are the 4 major classes of organic compounds - and what % of cell do they comprise? protiens 15%, lipids 2%, carbohydrates 1%, nucleic acids 1%
what are inorganic compounds compounds that don't contain carbon - acids, bases, and salts
what are the components of DNA? two long-sugar phosphate chains (rails) linked by pairs of nitrogenous organic bases (steps). Hydrogen bonds attack bases to each other.
what are purines? adenine (A) & guanine (G)
what are pyrimidines? Cytosine (C) & Thymine (T)
nitrogen-containing organic base, five carbon sugar molecule (deoxyribose), and a phosphate molecule nucleotide
protien synthesis involves how many amino acids? 22
what is most important inorganic compound? water!!!
what determines cell function? order of arrangement of protiens
provide the body with shape and form, source of heat and energy structural protiens
function as organ catalysts – affect rate & speed of chemical reactions enzymatic protiens
Can mend damaged molecules, capable of helping the cell recover from a small amt of radiation induced damage repair enzymes
attempt to deliver enough radiation to kill cancerous cells, while delivering a less than cell killing, and therefore repairable, EqD to surrounding noncancerous tissue structure therapeutic ratio
chemical secretions that influence the activities of other parts of the body hormones
protein molecules produced by lymphocytes antibodies
Chains of sugar molecules. Short term energy warehouses for the body carbohydrates
primary purpose of carbohydrates provide fuel for cell metabolism
primary energy source in the cell glucose
Molecule of glycerin & 3 molecules of fatty acid lipid
functions that lipids perform in the body energy storage, insulation & protection, lubrication, digestion aid, provide substances for growth & development
. Carries genetic info necessary for replications, regulates all cellular activity to direct protein synthesis. Determines a person’s characteristics by regulating sequence of amino acids DNA
DNA regulates cellular activity indirectly, transmitting genetic info outside cell nucleus by reproducing itself in the form of mRNA
how mRNA differs from DNA contains ribose in backbone -extra OH bond from deoxyribose, uracil (U), replaces Thymine, resembles half a DNA molecule
combines with individual amino acids from different areas of cell and attaches them to the ribosomes tRNA
functions to assist in linking of mRNA to the ribosome to facilitate protein synthesis ribosomal RNA
tiny, rod-shaped bodies become visible only in dividing cells. Composed of protein and DNA chromosomes
specific sequence of base pairs in a chromosome gene
total amount of genetic material (DNA) contained within the human being human genome
how many base pairs in human genome 2.9 billion
how many genes are possible? 30K
how many different proteins are possible to be produced? 90K
hydrogen containing compounds that attack and dissolve metal acids
can neutralize acids bases
chemical compounds resulting from the action of an acid and a base on each other salts
function of water inside cell solvent, transportation, maintain body temp, cushion, regulated concentrations, lubes joints & digestive system
keep correct proportion of water in the cell Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K)
necessary for proper cell performance, creation of energy, and conduction of impulses along nerves Mineral salts
barricade to protect cellular contents from their environment & controls passage of water and other materials in/out. Elimination of wastes & refines material for energy through breakdown of materials cellular membrane
Enables cell to communicate with extracellular environment & transfers food from one part of the cell to another endoplasmic reticulum
Unites large carb molecules and combines them with proteins to for glycoprotiens; concentrates, packages, & transports enzymes & hormones thru the cell membrane so they can exit the cell, enter bloodstream, and be carried to areas where they are needed golgi apparatus
Large double membrane bean shaped structure. Produce energy for extra cellular activity by breaking down nutrients through oxidative metabolism mitochondria
Small pea-like sacs or single membrane spherical bodies. Dispose of large particles (bacteria & food) as well as smaller particles; contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down and digest proteins certain carbs, and the cell itself lysosome
Manufacture various proteins that cells require – attached to and part of ER ribosomes
Believed to play some part in the formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division centrosomes
Contains genetic material; controls cell division and multiplication and also biochemical reactions that occur within the living cell DNA
Holds a large amt of RNA nucleolus
osmosis, requires no energy on the part of the cell passive transport
cell must expend energy to pump substances into and out of it active transport
any chemical reaction in which an atom loses electrons oxidation
stages of cell growth M (mitosis phase) G1 (pre-DNA synthesis phase) S (Synthesis phase) G2 (post-DNA synthesis phase)
stage of cell division in which chromosome damage caused by radiation can be evaluated metaphase
Created by: jen.studer