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Management 3140

Test 2: Baron

QuestionAnswer
Motivation A set of energetic forces taht originates both within and outside and employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence.
Engagement High levels of intensity and persistence in work effort. Employees completely invest themselves and energy into their jobs.
Expectancy Theory The cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responces.
Expectancy Represents teh belief that exerting a high level of effor will result in the successful performance of some task.
Self-Efficacy The belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success.
Instrumentality The belief that succesfull performance will result in some outcomes.
Valence The anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance. Can be +,-, or 0
Needs Cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical phsycological or phsyiological consequences. Different Hierarchies
Extrinsic Motivation Motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance.
Intrinsic Motivation Motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward.
Total Motivation Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Meaning of Money The degree to which one views money as having symbolic, not just economic, value. Achievement, respect, and freedom
Goal Setting Theory Views Goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort.
Specific and Difficult Goals Goal setting theory says ....will result in higher levels of performance than no goals, easy goals, or do your best.
Self Set Goals Internalized goals that people use to monitor their own task progress.
Task Stratagies Learning plans and problem solving approaches used to achieve successful performance.
Feedback Updates on employee progress toward goal attainment
Task Complexity How complicated the information and actions involved in a task are.
Goal commitment The degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it.
SMART Goals Goals managers are trined with to teach employees to link rewards directly to goal achievement. Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Results-based, and Time Sensitive
Equity Theory Motivation doesnt just depend on your own beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people. Employees create mental ledger of outcomes.
Comparison Other Some person who seems to provide an intuitive frame of reference for judging equity.
Equity Distress Internal tension that can only be alleviated by restoring a balance to the ratios. Under-rewarded=Negative
Cognitive Distortion Allows one to restore balance mentally, without altering your behavior in any way.
Internal Comparrisons Refer to someone in the company
External Comparisons Refer to someone in a different company
Phsycological Empowerment Reflects an energy rooted in the belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose.
Meaningfulness Captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a persons own ideals and passions.
Self-Determination A sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks.
Competence A persons belief in his or her capability to perform work tasks successfully
Impact The sense that a person's actions "Make a difference" and that progress is being made toward fulfilling some important purpose
Recognition Awards Tangible awards or intangible awards that are given on an impromptu basis to recoginze achievement
Merit Pay An increase to base salary is made in accordance with performance evaluation ratings
Reputation Reflects the prominence of its brand in the minds of the public and perceived quality of its goods and services.
Trust The willingness to be vulnerable to a trustee based on positive expectations about ones actions or intentions
Justice The perceived fairness of an authority's decision making
Ethics The degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with teh generally accepted moral norms.
Disposition Based Trust Your personality traits include a general propensity to trust others
Cognition Based Trust Rooted in a rational assessment of authority's trustworthiness
Affect-Based Trust Trust depends on feelings toward the authority that go beyond any rational assessment.
Trust Propensity A general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of individuals and groups can be relied upon. "Faith in Human Nature"
Trustworthiness The characteristics or attributes of a trustee that inspire trust.
Ability Skills, competencies, and areas of expertise that enable an authority to be successful in some specific area
Benevolence The belief that the authority wants to do good for the trustor, apart from any selfish or profit-centered motives.
Integrity The perception that the authority adheres to a set of values and priniples that the trustor finds acceptable.
Distributive Justice The percieved fairness of decision making outcomes. Gauged by whether decision outcomes are allocated using proper norms.
Procedural Justice When authorities adhere to the rules of a fair process. Voice, Correctability, and equal employment oppurtunity
Interpersonal Justice Percieved fairness of the treatment received by employees from authorites. Fostered by respect and proprietory rules
Abusive Supervision The sustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors, excluding physical contact.
Informational Justice Percieved fairness of the communications proved to employees from authorites. Fostered by Justification rule and Truthfullness rule
Whistle-Blowing When current or former employees expose illegal or immoral actions by their organization
Moral Awareness When an authority recognizes that a moral issue exists in a situation or that an ethical code or principle is relevant to the circumstance.
Moral Intensity Captures the Degree to which an issue has ethical urgency.
Moral Attentiveness Degree to which people chronically perceive and consider issues of morality during their experiences
Moral Judgment The process people use to determine whether a particular course of action is ethical or not
Congitive Moral Development People age and mature, they move through various stages of moral develpment.
Moral Principles Prescriptive guides for making moral judgments.
Moral Intent Degree of commitment to the moral course of action. D
Moral Identity Degree to which a person self-identifies as a moral person. Defined by what we do, where we come from, family status, and ethical groups we belong to
Economic Exchange Relationships based on narrowly defined, quid pro quo obligations specified in advanced with an explicit repayment schedule.
Social Exchange Relationships based on vaguely defined obligations that are open-ended and long term in their repayment schedule
Expertise The knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices and less experienced people.
Explicit Knowledge Kind of info youre likely to think about when you picture someone sititng down at a dest to learn
Tactic Knowledge What employees can learn only through experience.
Coningencies of Reinforcement +,-, punishment, or extinction: modify employee behavior
Positve Reinforcement When a positve outcome follows a desired behavior. Most common
Negative Reinforcements When unwatned outcome is removed follwoing a desired behavior.
Punishment When an unwanted outcomes followes an unwanted behavior
Extinction The removal of a consequence following an unwanted behavior. Can be purposeful or accidental
Continuous Reinforcement Simplest schedule and happens when a specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a desired behavior
Fixed interval Schedule The most common form of reinforcement. Workers are rewarded after a certain amount of time and lengh of time between reinforcement periods stays the same
Variable Interval Schedules Reinforce behavior at random points in time.
Fixed Ratio Schedules Reinfoce behaviors after a certain number of them have been exhibited
Variable Ratio Schedules Reward people after a varying number of exhibited behaviors
Social learning Theory Peole in organizations have the ability to learn trough the observation of others.
Behavioral Modeling When employees observe the actions of others, learn from what they observe, and the repeat the behavior.
Learning Orientation Where building competence is deemed more important than demonstrating competence
Performance-prove Orientation Focus on demonstrating their competence so that others think favorable of them
Performance-avoid Orientation Focus on demonstrating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them
Programmed Decisions Decisions that become somewhat automatic because peoples knowledge allows them to recognize and identify a situation and the course of action that needs to be taken
Intuition Emotionally charged judgments that arise through quick, nonconscious, and holistic associations.
Crisis Situation Change, whether sudden or evolving, that results in an urgent problem that must be addressed immediatley
Nonprogrammed decision A new, complex, and unrecognized situation
Bounded Rationality The notion that decision makers simply do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision
Satisficing When decision makers select teh first acceptable alternative considered
Selective Perception Tendency for people to see their environment only as it affects them and as it is consistent with their expectations
Projection Bias False assumption people tend to make when it comes to other people is the belief that others think, feel, and act the same way they do.
Social Identity Theory People identify themselves by teh groups to which they belong and perceive and judge others by their group memberships
Stereotype When assumptions are made about others on the basis of their membership in a social group.
Heuristics Simple, efficient, rules of thumb that allow us to to make decisions more easily
Availability Bias The tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is easier to recall.
Fundamental Attribution Error People have a tendency to judge others behaviors due to internal factors.
Self-Serving Bias When we attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes to internal factors
Escalation of Committment Decision to continue to follow a failing course of action. Very common.
Knowledge Transfer Transfering knowledge from older, experienced workers to their younger employees
Training Systematic effort by organizations to facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge and behavior.
Communities of Practice Groups of employees who work together and learn from one another by collaborating over an extended period of time.
Climate for Transfer Enviroment that can support the use of new skills.
Abraham Maslow "Humans are wanting animals" we have needs that account for most all human behavior
5 Needs in the Needs Theory Phsiological, Safety, Social, Esteem, and Self Actualizaiton
Operant Conditioning Learning is based on a trial and error process whereby an organism remembers what behaviors elicted positive, or pleasurable, responses and which elicited negative ones.
Effective Re-inforcement Contingent, Powerful, immediate, coorect responce, and consisten
Expectancy Theory Force VIE: Valence, Instrumentality, and Expectancy
Motivational Force Degree of effor that will be directed towards various levels of performance.
Outcomes of Performance Praise, Promotion, Pay raise, Coworker ridicule
Managerial Applications of Motivation Clarify that effort leads to performance, Enhance motivatioh by training better, Follow employee suggestions.
Comparison Other Someone who seems to provide an intuitive frame of refernce for judging equity
Equity Distress Internal tension based on discrepency in the input/output ratio, only alleviate by restoring balance.
Overpayment Inequity Feelings of guilt in which the ratio of ones input to output is more than the corresoponding ration of another person with whom that person compares to.
Underpayment Inequity Feeling of anger where one feels they are not getting what they deserver
Equitable Payment Happy with what they are getting for what they are doing.
Procedural Justice Examples Voice, Coorectability, Consistency, Bias suppression, Representativeness, accuracy
The Lucifer Effect A celebration of the human minds infinite ability to make us behave kind or cruel , caring or indifferent, creative or destructive, and make us villans or heros
Solutions for the Lucifer Effect Hotline, Adequate Controls, Constantly Communicate Controls, Incentives for doing right thinkg
Confusious Philosophy What I hear I forget, What I see I remember, What I do I understand.
Designing a Training program Need Assesments, Set learning objectives, Design Training Activities, Sequence Training Activities, Revise Design details, and Evaluate results
How to analyze people Observation, background info, surveys, interviews.
SME Subject, Matter, Expert
Learning Objective What the learner will know or be able to do as aresult of having attended an educational program or activities
Characteristics of Learning Objectives Observable, Measurable, and Specific
Why Use Learning Objectives Provides what training is not, facilitates evaluation of training and stakeholder buyin
Created by: 565907251
 

 



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