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Chapters 23 & 24

QuestionAnswer
What are some potential hazards in health care settings transmission of diseases, fire, chemical spill, falls/injuries, allergic reactions
What are the three components that must be present for a fire to burn Oxygen, heat, fuel
Most accidental fires are traceable to one of what four causes Spontaneous combustion Open flames Smoking Electricity
Describe safe techniques for assisting patient to do the following using good body mechanics: stand sit lie down walk
Describe methods for immobilizing and restraining adult patients Place a sandbag across an extremity proximal area of interest 2. Safety straps or compression bands
List some items within the radiology department that can be used to immobilize patient. . Sheets 2. Lead aprons 3. tape 4. Positioning sponges 5. Sandbag 6. Safety straps 7. Compression bands
What precautions should be used when immobilizing patients Make sure that it does not hinder breathing or circulation and must be monitored at all times
List and explain the four factors involved in the cycle of infection. . Infectious organism 2. A reservoir of infection 3. A susceptible host 4. A means of transporting the organism
What is the most direct way to intervene in the cycle of infection Hand hygiene
List significant diseases caused by bacteria. Tuberculosis, streptococcal pharyngitis, diarrhea and kidney disease
using alcohol rubs and washing hands . Medical asepsis
wiping the table with disinfectant Disinfection
placing instruments in chemicals or device to remove all germs Sterilization
List examples of personal hygiene practices that help prevent the spread of infection Shower regular, brush teeth, clean uniform, hair pulled back
Describe the proper technique for effective hand washing. wet hands thoroughly, apply antimicrobial soaplather well, rubbing hands and fingers together with firm rotary motion for 20 seconds. Rub palms, backs of hands and area between fingers rinse, allowing water to run down over hands.dry thoroughly
Describe correct techniques for Establishing a sterile field on a clean surface break the seal and open the pack. Unfold the first corner away from you and then two sides. Pull the front fold down toward you and drop it. Do not touch the inner surface.
HIV What are the transmission routes for HIV sexual contact, contaminated blood or needles or fluids containing blood, mother to fetus via placenta
What are the transmission routes for Hepatitis A & E transmitted through food and water containment with feces
What are the transmission routes for Hepatitis B,C and D blood borne
What are the symptoms of hepatitis Jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
What are the standard precautions whenever contact is anticipated with the body fluid/wound drainage, secretions & excretions (except sweat), nonintact skin, mucous membrane Use of personal protective equipment (gloves, gown, mask) and frequent hand washing
The key to effective protection consistent approach to all contact with all body substance of all patient at all times .
Names three things that cause immunosuppresion 1. drugs 2. illness 3. poor self-care
How can you fight the spread of infection Stay home when you are ill, Cover your mouth Wear a clean uniform daily hand hygiene Use established precautions practice good housekeeping when in doubt do not use it immediately dispose of linens, instruments nose
How does good house keeping, reduce infection Reduces incidence of airborne infection and transfer of pathogen
A clean dry environment discourages the growth of all microorganisms. .
Name the general principles that apply when cleaning is required clean from the least contaminated toward the more contaminated area Avoid raising dust Do not contaminate yourself or clean areasClean all equipment using a cloth moistened with disinfectant
DO NOT USE DISINFECTING WIPES ON PATIENTS .
What is the proper way to handle contaminated linens Fold the edges to the middle without shaking or flapping and immediately place in a hamper or lined trash container
Never use any linen for more than one patient .
Regulations demand that objects contaminated with blood or body fluids be discarded in a suitable container marked with a biohazard symbol. .
Never recap a needle .
What should be done before lab specimens are sent to the lab? Specimen should be placed in a clean container with secure cap, labeled and put in a plastic bag that is also labeled and has a biohazard
Any procedure that pierces the skin requires sterile equipment .
What must be done to reusable sterile equipment prior to using for next procedure? Must be cleaned and sterilized
Name the methods used for sterilization . chemical gas 2. steam 3. gas plasma 4. autoclave 5. ionizing radiation
What are the most common forms of sterilization . Chemical 2. gas 3. steam
What are the standard principles of surgical Asepsis Any sterile object/field touched by an unsterile becomes ntaminated Never reach across a sterile field. If you suspect an item is contaminated discard Do not pass between physicians and the sterile field Never leave sterile field unattended
Physical discomfort adds tension to a patient. .
Why is it important for the history to be on the x-ray requisition It may influence how the examination is conducted and aids the radiologist in focusing the interpretation to meet the referring doctor’s needsq
What is the purpose of asking a patient the history pertaining to exam ordered? To obtain useful information 2. Gives the opportunity to build a rapport with the patient 3. Ability to gain patients confidence
What should a history contain? Why x-ray is being done 2. How injury happened 3. Where, when and if prior films were taken 4. If comparison film was done
State the outline for taking a history. 1. Onset 2. Duration 3. Specific location 4. Quality of pain 5. What aggravates 6. What alleviates
How do you assess the patient 1. observation 2. vital signs 3. pulse 4. blood pressure 5. respiration 6. blood oxygen saturation
What are acute life threatening conditions & asthma bronchial obstruction cardiac arrest heart attack angina pectoris
Evaluation is an ongoing process of observation; assessment and measurement note and evaluate change in patient condition .
The patient who becomes cyanotic and needs immediate medical attention .
A patient who looks pale, anxious and does not feel well is subject to fainting and needs to sit or lie down immediately .
Hot dry skin may indicate fever .
. Warm moist skin may only be a response to weather or room ?
Cool moist skin may indicate acute anxiety. .
Wet palms and shaking hands are typical of an apprehensive individual. .
What are the four items included in vital signs Temperature 2. Pulse rate 3. Respiratory rate 4. Blood pressure
An accurate temperature reading, measures the body’s basic metabolic state the rate at which it uses energy. .
Created by: mdtodd