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Pharm #2 Nebs HCCRT

Nebulizers for Aerosol Therapy

QuestionAnswer
particles of water or liquid suspended in a gas aerosol
the size of the particles determine how far they can be inhaled into the airway particle size
used to deliver aerosolized medications to the patients airway nebulizer
what has smaller particle sizes then the standard SVN MDI
useful to tx nasal and oral areas >10
most particles go to central airways 5 to 10 microns
overall lower respiratory tract (large airways to periphery). Most bronchoactive agents work here 2-5 microns
increased delivery to lung parenchyma, incl. terminal airways and alveoli. 0.8-3.0 microns
density, viscosity and surface tension are characteristics of what solution
pneumatic and ultrasonic are examples of what nebulizers
jet neb is most common, uses Bernoulli principle, requires a source of gas flow pneumatic
electricity creates sound waves that convert liquid inot droplets ultrasonic
when the forward velocity of a gas increases bernoulli principle
lateral pressure decreases bernoulli principle
the forward pressure increases bernoulli principle
by creating a restriction in the flow of gas, the veolcity and forward pressure increase and the lateral pressure decreases bernoulli principle
decreases in lateral wall pressure to shatter fluid particles at the point where the gas flow exists constriction pneumatic nebulizers
lateral pressure around gas stream decreases below atmospheric, fluid is drawn up capillary tube and reaches the gas stream, dead volume not nebulized pneumatic neb
used to shatter fluid particles to decrease the size baffle
can include a fluid surface, sides of the aerosol generatot or a structure placed in front of the gas stream baffle
gas flow interacts with solution prior to leaving exit port internal mixing design
the gas solution interact after both leaves the nozzle internal mixing design
neb built in main stream neb
t- piece and corregated tubing as resevoir in common set up of what nebulizer
decrease amount of aerosol lost during expiration phase enhanced neb performance
collect aerosol during exhalation reservoir bags
increase neb. output during inspiratory phase breath-enhanced neb. ( vented)
caputures aerosol during expiratory phase reservoir bags
captured aerosol is inhaled during inspiratory phase reservoir bags
prevents exhaled gas from entering the bag circulair
some exhaled gas enters the bag aero tee
one way valve to prevent exhaled gas from filling the resevoir bag circulair
inspiratory / expiratory resisitor circulair
aerosol produced during exhalation for delivery on subsequent inhalation aero tee
provides 50% more aerosol to the patient than a standard neb. tee with a 6in. resevoir tube aero tee
no effect on particle size generated by neb aero tee
cost effective, simple to use, requires no adjustements aero tee
enhances neb. output breath inhanced neb. (vented)
pari neb breath enhanced neb (vented)
mainstream design with valves breath enhanced neb (vented)
patient breaths through the neb during INSPIRATION breath enhanced neb (vented)
inlet vent closes on exhalation pari neb
aerosol exits via one-way valve on mouthpiece pari neb
increases inhaled dose up to 50% pari neb
no increase in treatment time pari neb
synchronizes aerosol generation with inspiration breath - actuated neb
increases amount of drug available up to fourfold breath - actuated neb
amount of drug inhaled about the same each breath breath - acuated neb
used for certain medicines were none can be wasted aero-eclipse breath acuated neb
turns off when exhaling aero-eclipse breath acuated neb
high output extended aerosol resp. therapy HEART neb.
large volume neb HEART neb
aerosol production for 4 hours HEART neb
runs at a flow of 10-15 l/min HEART neb
piezolectric transduced ultrasonic neb USN
vibrates at high frequency Ultrasonic Neb
converts electricity to sound waves Ultrasonic Neb
creates waves in liquid above transducer ulatrasonic neb
disrupting liquids surface ulatrsonic neb
forms a geyser of droplets ultrasonic neb
an electrical charge is applied intermittently (at high frequency vibrations) to a substance that has a piezoelectric quailty principles of ulatrasonic neb
the ability to change shape when a charge is applied to it principles of ultrasonic neb
curved focusing, flat, and shielded are examples of piezolectric transducers
lower output than curved, does not require specific water level, output 0-3 ml/min flat transducer
breaks up aerosol to greater degree, requires controlled water level, output 0-6 ml/min curved focusing transducer
3 compontents power unit, piezolectric transducer, fan or patient inspritation USN
medicine placed directly into transducer USN
medicine placed in neb chamber with water used as a couplant to transfer sound waves USN
determined by amplitude of the signal, strength of the sound wave output
can be adjusted by user output
alters number of particles produced output
can produce densities as high as 500 mg/l (10 times more then needed for normal body conditions) output
determined by frequency of elctrical energy particle size
cannot be adjusted by user particles size
differnt nebs may operate on different frequencies particle size
usually used for bland aerosol therapy large vol USN
sputum induction Large vol neb
has air blower to carry mist to patient large vol neb
temperature of a solution may increase( as much as 15 degrees C over 15 minutes)(drug concentration also rises) large vol neb
filled with water ( helps absorb mechanical heat produced) coupling chamber
acts to transfer medium for sound waves to the neb chamber coupling chamber
solution may be placed in medication cup or directly onto the transducer small volume neb
battery power source small vol neb
patient inspiration carries aerosol small vol neb
may clear aerosol during exhalation (better to divert exhalation, min waste of meds, more drug available on inspiration) small vol neb
convienient for travel lumiscope USN
high operating speed lumiscope USN
electrical outlet, car cig. lighter, rechargeable battery are 3 power sources for lumiscope USN
treatment delivered with in 6 min mabismist USN
less then 1 pound mabismist USN
90% particles with in 1-5 micron in diameter mabismist USN
weighs 8 oz. omron portable USN
98% medication delivery Omron portable USN
4 AA batteries or AC Omron portable USN
particles 1-7 microns Omron portable USN
4 times a day QID
3 times a day TID
2 times a day BID
every other day QOD
every day QDq
every 4 hours Q4H
every 2 hours Q2H
what drug must a patient spit / rinse mouth after corstasteriod
can create candida slbicans thrush corstasteriod
5-10& saline hypertonic saline
Created by: learouse