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Older Students notes

Louisa Moats article from 2002

Most reading scientists agree that what reason underlies poor reading at all ages? a core linguistic deficit
When an individual's reading comprehension is more impaired than his or her listening comprehension what is the most likely cause? Inaccurate and slow word recognition is the most likely cause.
Over time, poor readers' comprehension skills decline because they do not read - what other results usually follow? They also become poor spellers and poor writers.
What usually begins for poor readers as a core phonological and word recognition deficit, often associated with other language weaknesses, becomes something else over time. What does this become? This becomes a diffuse, debilitating problem with language -- both spoken and written.
Nationally, what percentage of all adults are functionally illiterate? Nationally, 25% of all adults are functionally illiterate
Since 1996, state and federal reading initiatives have focused on the problem of reading failure at kindergarten and the primary grades. Why is this the case? Once children fall behind, they seldom catch up.
Why must reading interventions match the students' level of reading development? Because each stage of growth requires a special focus.
Recognition of printed words depends on the ability to map speech sounds to letter symbols - what is this ability called? The alphabetic principle
Recognition of printed words depends on the ability to recognize letter sequences accurately and quickly - what is this ability called? Orthographic processing.
Older students have to overcome the bad habit of relying on context and guessing to decode unknown words. What are the three most important aspects of their instruction? Instruction must be cumulative, sequential, and systematic.
What must poor readers do in order to make up the huge gap between themselves and other students? Students must read as much as possible in text that is not too difficult.
Daily vocabulary study is important to older poor readers - is memorizing definitions enough? Effective vocabulary study involves more than memorizing definitions.
How does shared and modeled writing help struggling readers? Students are prepared through intermediate steps to compose independently.
Studies at Florida State University and at Boys Town Reading Center in Nebraska have experienced success assisting struggling older readers. What two aspects of their instruction proved most helpful? All of these approaches assume that older poor readers can learn to read if they are taught the foundation language skills they missed and they have ample opportunity to apply the skills in meaningful text reading.
Created by: benodell