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Psych 317

Chap. 4, 9 12, 13

Aptitude-treatment Interaction Interaction of individual differences in learning with particular teaching methods.
Content Integration Teachers' use of examples, data, and other information from a variety of cultures.
Culture the language, attitudes, ways of behaving and other aspects of life that characterize a group of people.
Socioeconomic Status (SES) A measure of prestige within a social group that is most often based on income and education.
Ethnic Group A group within a larger society that sees itself as having a common history, social and cultural heritage, and traditions often based on race, religion, language, or national identity.
Ethnicity A history, culture and sense of identity shared by a group of people.
Race Visible genetic characteristics of individuals that cause them to be seen as members of the same broad group. (African, Asian, Caucasian.)
Minority Group An ethnic or racial group that is a minority within a broader population.
Language Minority In the United States, native speakers of any language other than English.
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Possessing limited mastery of English
English as a second language Subject taught in English classes and programs for students who are not native speakers of English.
Bilingual Education Instructional program for students who speak little or no English in which some instruction is provided in the native language.
Multicultural Education Education that teaches the value of cultural diversity.
Knowledge Construction Helping students understand how the knowledge we take in is influenced by our origins and points of view.
Prejudice Reduction A critical goal of multicultural education; involves development of positive relationships and tolerant attitudes among students of different backgrounds.
Equity Pedagogy teaching techniques that facilitate the academic success of students from different ethnic and social class groups.
Empowering school culture A school culture in which the institutions organization and practices are conductive to the academic and emotional growth of all students.
Sex-role behavior Socially approved behavior associated with one gender as opposed to the other.
Gender bias Stereotypical views and differential treatment of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other.
Intelligence General aptitude for learning often measured by the ability to deal with abstractions and to solve problems.
Intelligence quotient (IQ) An intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100.
Multiple Intelligences In Gardner's theory of intelligence, a person' eight separate abilities: logical/mathematical, linguistic, musical, naturalist, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal.
Between-class ability grouping The practice of grouping students in separate classes according to ability level.
QAIT model A model of effective instruction that focuses on elements teachers can directly control: quality, appropriateness, incentive, and time.
Tracks Curriculum sequences to which students of specified achievement or ability level are assigned.
Within-class ability grouping A system of accommodating student differences by dividing a class of students into two or more ability groups for instruction in certain subjects.
Untracking A focus on having students in mixed-ability groups and holding them to high standards but providing many ways for students to reach those standards.
Regrouping A method of ability grouping in which students in mixed-ability classes are assigned to reading or math classes on the basis of their performance levels.
Joplin Plan A regrouping method in which students are grouped across grade lines for reading instructions.
Nongraded programs Programs, generally at the primary level, that combine children of different ages in the same class. Also called cross-age grouping programs.
Individualized Instruction Instruction tailored to particular students' needs in which each student works at her or his own level and rate.
Peer tutoring Tutoring of one student by another.
Cross-age tutoring Tutoring of a younger student by an older one.
Differentiated Instruction An approach to teaching that adapts the content, level, pace, and products of instruction to accommodate different needs of diverse students in regular class.
Word Processing A computer application for writing compositions that lends itself to revising and editing.
Spreadsheets Computer programs that convert data into tables, charts and graphs.
Database Computer programs that contain large volumes of info such as encyclopedia's and atlases.
Hypermedia & Hypertext Related information that appears when a computer user clicks on a word or picture.
Computer-assisted Instructions (CAI) Individualized instruction administered by computer.
Drill and Practice Application of computer technology to provide students with practice of skills and knowledge!
Tutorial Programs Computer programs that teach new material, varying their content and pace according to the student's responses.
Instructional Games Drill and practice exercises presented in a game format.
Simulation Software Computer programs that model real life phenomena to promote problem-solving abilities and motive interest in the areas concerned.
Problem-solving program Program designed specifically to develop students' critical-thinking skills.
Internet A large and growing telecommunications network of computers around the world that communicate electronically.
Wiki A website, such as the Wikipedia, containing content to which the user can add or make modifications.
Multimedia Electronic material such as graphics, video, animation, and sound, which can be integrated into classroom projects.
CD-ROM A computer database designed for "read-only memory" that provides massive amounts of information including picture and audios.
Videodiscs Interactive computer technology (might include videos, still pictures, and music).
Digital Photographs Photographs that can be loaded into a computer and shared electronically.
Integrated learning system Commercially developed comprehensive, multipurpose packages of interlinked management instructional software, running on a computer network.
Embedded Multimedia Video content woven into teachers' lessons.
Interactive whiteboard Large touchscreen that teachers can sue to display and modify digital content for an entire class.
Wireless response systems (clickers) Electronic devices on which students enter answers to questions and have them registered on a computer or interactive whiteboard.
Students at risk Students who are subject to school failure because of their own characteristics and/or because of inadequate responses to their needs by school, family, or community.
Compensatory Education Programs designed to prevent or re-mediate learning problems among students from lower socioeconomic status communities.
Title I Compensatory programs reauthorized under Title I of the Improving American's Schools Act (IASA) in 1994.
Pull-out Programs Compensatory education programs in which students are placed in separate classes for remediation.
Early Intervention Programs that target at-risk infants and toddlers to prevent possible later need remediation.
Reading Recovery A program in which specially trained teachers provide one-to-one tutoring to first-graders who are not reading adequately.
Success for All A comprehensive approach to prevention and early intervention for preschool, kindergarten, and grades 1 through 8, with one-to-one tutoring, family support services, and changed in instruction designed to prevent students from falling behind.
Learners with exceptionalities Any individuals whose physical, mental, or behavioral performance is so different from the norm--either higher or lower--that additional services are needed to meet the individual's needs.
Disability The limitation of a function, such as cognitive processing or physical or sensory abilities.
Handicap A condition imposed on a person with disabilities by society, the physical environment, or the person's attitude.
Mental retardation A condition, usually present at birth, that results in below-average intellectual skills and poor adaptive behavior.
Learning Disabilities (LD) Disorders that impede academic progress of people who are not mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed.
Response to intervention Policies in which struggling children are given intensive assistance and are evaluated for possible special-education services only if they fail to respond.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) A disorder characterized by difficulties maintaining attention because of a limited ability to concentrate; includes impulsive actions and hyperactive behavior.
Speech disorders Oral articulation problems, occurring most frequently among children in the early elementary school grades.
Language disorders Impairments in one's ability to understand language or to express ideas in one's native language.
Emotional and behavioral disorders Exceptionalities characterized by problems with learning, interpersonal relationships, and control of feelings and behavior.
Conduct disorders Socioemotional and behavioral disorders that are indicated in individuals who, for example, are chronically disobedient or disruptive.
Autism A category of disability that significantly affects social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and educational performance.
Sensory Impairments Problems with the ability to receive information through the body's senses.
Vision loss Degree of uncorrectable inability to see well.
Hearing disabilities Degree of deafness; uncorrectable inability to hear well.
Giftedness Exceptional intellectual ability, creativity, or talent.
Acceleration programs Rapid promotion through advanced studies for students who are gifted or talented.
Enrichment programs Programs in which assignments or activities are designed to broaden or deepen the knowledge of students who master classroom lessons quickly.
Special Education Programs that address the needs of students with mental, emotional, or physical disabilities.
Public Law 94-142 Federal law enacted in 1975 requiring provision of special-education services to eligible students.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) P.L. 101-476, a federal law enacted in 1990 that changed the name of P.L. 94-142 and broadened services to adolescents with disabilities.
Least restrictive environment Provision in IDEA that requires students with disabilities to be educated with non-disabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate.
Mainstreaming The temporal, instructional, and social integration of eligible children with exceptionalities with peers without exceptionalities based on an ongoing, individually determined educational planning and programing process.
Individualized Education Program (IEP) A program tailored to the needs of a learner with exceptionalities.
Collaboration Process in which professionals work cooperatively to provide educational services.
Full inclusion Arrangement whereby students who have disabilities or are at risk receive all their instruction in a general education setting; support services are brought to the students.
Instructional Observation A statement of skills or concepts that students should master after a given period of instruction.
Task Analysis Breaking tasks down into fundamental subskills.
Backward Planning Planning instruction by first setting long-range goals, then setting unit objectives, and finally planning daily lessons.
Assessment A measure of the degree to which instructional objectives have been attained.
Teaching Objectives Clear statements of what students are intended to learn through instructions.
Learning Objectives Specific behaviors students are expected to exhibit at the end of a series of lessons.
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Bloom's ordering of objectives from simple learning tasks to more complex ones.
Behavior Content Matrix A chart that classifies lesson objectives according to cognitive level.
Affective Objectives Objectives that have to do with student attitudes and values.
Evaluation Measurement of student performance in academic and, sometimes, other areas; used to determine appropriate teaching strategies.
Formative Evaluations Evaluations designed to determine whether additional instruction is needed.
Summative Evaluations Final evaluations of students' achievement of an objective.
Norm-referenced Interpretations Assessments that compare the performance of one student against the performance of others.
Criterion-referenced Interpretations Assessments that rate how thoroughly students have mastered specific skills or areas of knowledge.
Table of Specifications A list of instructional objectives and expected levels of understanding that guides test development.
Selected-response Items Test items in which respondents can select from one or more possible answers, without requiring the scorer to interpret their response.
Multiple-choice Items Test items that usually consist of a stem followed by choices or alternatives.
Stem A question or partial statement in test item that is completed by one of several choices.
Distractors Incorrect responses that are offered as alternative answers to a multiple-choice question.
Clang Features that make a choice stand out in multiple-choice questions.
True-false Items A form of multiple-choice test items, most useful when a comparison of two alternatives is called for.
Matching Items Test items that are presented in two lists, each item in one list matching one or more items in the other list.
Completion Items Fill-in-the-blank test items.
Short Essay Item A test question the answer to which may range from a sentence or two to a page of 100 to 150 words.
Long Essay Items A test question requiring an answer of more than a page.
Problem-solving Assessment Test the calls for organizing, selecting, and applying complex procedures that have at least several important steps or components.
Halo Effect Bias due to carryover of a general attitude about a respondent, as when a teacher knows which student wrote which response and alters the grading depending on his or her opinion of the student.
Evaluative Descriptors Statements describing strong and weak features of a response to an item, a question, or a project.
Portfolio Assessment Assessment of a collection of student's work in an area showing growth, self-reflection, and achievement.
Performance Assessments Assessments of students' ability to perform tasks in real-life contexts, not only to show knowledge. Also called authentic assessments.
Relative Grading Standard Grades given according to a student's rank in his or her class or grade.
Mastery Grading Grading requires an established standard of mastery, such as 80 or 90 percent correct on a test. Students who do not achieve it the first time may receive corrective instruction and then retake the test to try to achieve mastery.
Created by: ashleainmichigan