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Chap. 5 & 6

Introduction to Sociology

Social group Two or more people who identify with and interact with one another.
Primary group A small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships.
Secondary group A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity.
Instrumental leadership Group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks.
Expressive leadership Group leadership that focuses on the group's well-being.
Groupthink The tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue.
Reference group A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions.
in-group A social group toward which a person feels respect and loyalty.
out-group A social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition.
Dyad A social group with two members.
Triad A social group with three members.
Network A web of weak social ties.
Formal Organization A large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently.
Bureaucracy An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.
Organizational Environment Factors outside an organization that affect its operation.
Tradition Values and beliefs passed from generation to generation.
Rationality A way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task.
Rationalization of society Weber's term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main mode of human thought.
Bureaucratic Ritualism A focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization's goals.
Bureaucratic Inertia The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves.
Oligarchy The rule of the many by the few.
Scientific Management Frederick Taylor's term for the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization.
Primary sex characteristics the genitals, organs used for reproduction.
Secondary sex characteristics bodily development, apart from the genitals, that distinguishes biologically mature males and females.
intersexual people people who bodies (including genitals) have both female and male characteristics.
transsexuals people who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other.
incest taboo a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives.
sexual orientation a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person.
Heterosexuality sexual attraction to someone of the other sex.
Homosexuality sexual attraction to someone of the same sex.
Bisexuality sexual attraction to people of both sexes.
asexuality a lack of sexual attraction to people of either sex.
Homophobia Discomfort over close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
Pornography sexually explicit material intended to cause sexual arousal.
Prostitution the selling of sexual services.
queer theory a body of research that challenges the heterosexual bias in U.S. society
heterosexism a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"
abortion the deliberate termination of a pregnancy.
Created by: Shanti2