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chemistry amino acid

What is prealbumin? Migrates ahead of albumin, transports with throid hormones and retinal.
Albumin Highest concentration 40-60%. Responsible for oncotic pressure. Strong negative charge.
cotic pressure Force that confines fluids within the vascular compartment.
Analbumemina Total absence of albumin
Globulins Alpha 1,2, Beta and gamma globulins
Antitrypsin Main function to inhibit lysosomal elastase and chymotrypsin
AAT Antitrypsin
Fetoprotein AFP/ glycoprotein normally present in low concentrations. Peaks in fetus 13 weeks and recedes by 34th week.Diagnosis for neural tube defects, fetal blood loss.
Decreased amount of AFP associated with down syndrome
Glycoproteins mucoprotein composed of five carbs attached to peptide chaininhibits phagocytic activity and platelet aggregation
AGP Glycoproteins
Haptoglobin HP
Primary function to bind free hemoglobin Haptoglobin (HP)
Cerloplasmin Cer
Cerloplasmin copper oxidase enzyem, single polypeptide, regulate iron transport and utilization
Macroglogulin Largest plasma protein, functions as a protease inhibitor by blocking the active site on enzymes such as plasmin, thrombin
A2M Macroglogulin
What are the Beta Globulins Transferrin, Beta 2 Macroglobulins, Fibrinogen, complement, c-reactive protein
transferrin major function is to transport oxidized ions of iron. Major component of beta globulins in body.
Alpha 2 Macroglogulin largest plasma protein,protease inhibitor by blocking the active site on enzymes such as plasmin
What beta globulin is useful in assessing renal function Macroglobins
What Beta 2 globulin is useful in monitoring multiple myloma and b cell tumors? Macroglobulin
Fibrinogen Beta globulin activated by thrombin to form fibrin by cleaving fibrinopeptides from the fibringens chain to form a fibrin clot.
Complement Beta Globulins, 25 proteins sequential manner.
Causes lysis, opsonize cellular debris prior to phagocytosis mediate inflammatory response Complement
What protein has the highest concentration in complement? C3
C-reactive Beta globulins, bind c-polysaccaride on the cell wall of s.pneumonia
what is the major function of C-reactive protein? C-reactive form complexes with microorganism to faciliate activation of classical pathway.
What beta globulin initiates opsonization, phagocytosis and lysis of foreighn cell in complemant pathway C-reactive (CRP)
Immunoglobulins synthesized by plasma cells stimulated by immune response to foreighn particle
what are the 5 major groups of immunoglubulins IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE,IgD
What is a Kappa and Lambda? light chain
The differences in a heavy chain are called? Idiotypes
Monoclonal immunoglobulin a molecule or immunoglobulin that is derived from the proliferation of one plasm cell
IgG most abundant75% long term physiological protection neatralizing bacter or viral antigens
IgA two subtypes dimeric secretory
IgM first antibody to appear due to antigenic stimulation, largest in size, surface of b-cells
IgD surface of b lymphs, function unknown
IgE lowest conc, associated with allergic reactions, rapidly attach to mast cells
Myoglobulin heme protein found in striated skeletal and cardiac muscles
What can reversible bind oxygen myoglobulin
If myologlubin is elimated what does is cause? kidney damage
troponin regulate muscle contractions
Used to assess the risk of patients with acute myocardial ischemia Tropinin T
Fibronectin identical subunits, cell adhesion, tissue differentiation, growth and wound healing
used as a predictor of preterm labor fibronectin
Inborn errors of metabolism, rare amino acidopathies
Phenylketouria Amino acidopathies, PKU, absence of PKA, buildup of phenylpyruvate, heel prick
disorder of tyrosine transaminase Tyrosinemia(amino acidopathies) buildup of of Tyrosine
Urine darkening upon standing Amino acidopathies/ Alkaptonuria/first error discovered/
Homocystinuria Amino aciopathies/formation of cystine, impaired enzyme, def.folic acid, vita b6 and b12
specimens use dfor amino acid testing urine and blood
composed of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen proteins
functions of proteins oncontic pressure, tranportation, hormones, buffer
hypoproteinemia protein levle less than reference range, cause by excessive plasma protein loss, decrease in protein intake
results of hypoproteinemia def.in essential amino acids, impaired protein syntheses seen in liver disease inheristed immunodeficiency disorders
Hyperproteinemia protein levels greater than reference range
what can cause dehydration hyperproteinemia
multiple myeloma hyperproduction of IgG, neoplastic cells proliferate in the bone marrow
M spike multiple myeloma
waldenstroms macroglobulinemia monoclonal paraprotein of IgM type
symptons of waldenstrom? fewer bact. infections, less bone pain, thick serum due to IgM
what are the five total protein tests Kjeldahl, refractometery, biuret, dye binding, protein fractionation
classic method of total proteins kjeldahl
Tungtstic acid to precipitate proteins kjeldahl
measure the refraction of the serum vs water for total proteins, what is the test? Refractometry
quick method of determining the protein volume refractometry
biuret cupric ions combining with the peptide bonds in an alkaline pH, forms violet color, measured spectrophotomically at 540nm
Total Protein-Dye binding most proteins have affinity for dyes and will bind
Most common dyes used for dye binding bromphenol blue, ponceau S, Coomassie brillant blue 250
What test measures the dye absorption by spectrophotometry as a shift in absorbance at 465-595 nm? Dye binding
total protein fractionation used wheneleof protein is found, testing for further seperae the 5 fractions is done by electrophoresis
what are the the three alpha 1 globulins? Antitrypsin(AAT), fetoprotein(AFP), Glycoproteins(AGP)
What are the Alpha 2 globulins Haptoglobin(Hp), Ceruloplasmin(Cer), Macroglobulin(A2M0,
What are the Beta Globulins? Transferrin(TRN), Macroglobulins, Fibrinogen
Trn transferrin
AFP Fetoprotein
AGP Glycoproteins
Hp Haptoglobin
Cer Ceruloplasmin
A2M Macroglogulin
Salt fractionation globulins are seperated from albumin by precipitating them out using salt
what is the name of the test that allows binding of anionic dye? Dye binding Albumin
What type of dye has a different absorbtion than free dye? bound dye
Direct colorimetric measurement Globulin test method, glyxylic acid is the presence of cupric ions and an acid medium produce a purple color.
How do you determine albumin levels? subtract total protein levels from total glubulin levels
what test is not commonly used for globulin testing? Direct colorimeric measurement
Tumor marker for hepatomas Fetoprotein
Primary clinical use is iron saturation Transferrin
Total iron binding capacity used which beta globulin? transferrin
Name the 5 diseases accociated with amino acidopathies? Phenylketouria, tyrosemia,alkaptonura,maple syrupe disease and homocystinuria
disorder of homogenistic acid oxidase Alkaptonuria
disorder of tyrosine transaminase tyrosinemia
Urine smelss like maple syrup,heriditary maple syrup disease
where does protein synthesis begin liver
how are proteins classified simple and conjugated
total nitrogen measures all chemically bound nitrogen within samples.
what gives a false negative in total nitrogen test urea and creatine
how is total nitrogen measured chemilluminescence, sample heated in the presence of oxygen, nitric oxide forms/excited nitrogen dioxide molecule (NO2)
Kjeldahl nitrogen converted to ammonium borate which is measured thru titration with HCL
Total protein fractionation used when elevation of total protein is found, testing to further seperate the 5 fractions is done by electrophoresis
total protein dye binding dye absorbtion is measured spectrophotomically as a shift in absorbance at 465 to 595 nm
Total protein dye binding used to stain bands after electrophoresis
serum protein electrophoresis standard method involves sample appplied to the neg.charge in an alkaline buffer of 8.6.
Proteins are seperated based on strength of the charge/divides in 5 bands serum protein electrophoresis
protein analysis high resolution protein electrophoresis,higher voltage conc,buffer
capillary electroph
Created by: joanndibattisto