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Renal Review

Review of Renal system for RST 1530 PGCC course

Internal region of kidney (1 of 3) Renal cortex - Contains the glomeruli and the proximal and distal tubules.
Internal region of kidney (2 of 3) Renal medulla - Contains pyramids:cone shaped areas of tissue containing loops of Henle and collecting ducts. Renal columns: extension of cortical tissue separating pyramids
Internal region of kidney (3 of 3) Renal pelvis: Branched in minor & major calcyes which form cup-like structures surrounding the papillae
How is blood carried to the kidneys Via the Renal arteries: They take 1/4 of the cardiac output to kidneys, they divide into segmental, lobar,& then 5 interlobar arteries which pass between the medullary pyramids
What's the functional unit of the kidney? The nephron
What are the 7 parts of the Nephron? Afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, loops of Henle, and the collecting ducts.
If BP falls how does the hypothalamus respond? By releasing ADH in order to conserve water.
As BP rises, the adrenal glands will respond by: stopping aldosterone release to increase diuresis.
If the juxtaglomerular cells baroreceptors detect a fall in BP then juxtaglomerular cells will: Release renin which will then become Angiotensin II(vasopressin) the most potent vasoconstrictor in the body.
Angiotensin also tells the body to do what if BP drops? It tells the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone which increases reabsorption of the NA+ and water from the nephron which increase BV & BP.
What is ANP & when is it released? ANP is Atrial natriuretic peptide and is released by the atrial myocardium when its overstretched (incresed BV) which decreases the release of aldosterone & renin.
A normal ph level is what? Between 7.35 - 7.45
What pH level represents an acidosis? A pH level < 7.35
What pH level represents an alkalosis? A pH level > 7.45
What do the kidneys do when the pH drops below 7.35? The Kidneys excrete more H+ and to retain more HCO3- (bicarb) and K+
What do the kidneys do when the pH rises above 7.45 The body retainx CL- in place of HCO3-(bicarb) and saves H+ excreting K+
Normal Bicarbonate level (HCO-3)? 22-26 mmol/L
Normal BUN level? 7-20 mg/dL
Normal Creatinine level? 0.6 - 1.5 mg/dl
Hypervolemia increased BV
Hypovolemia decreased BV
Urination Process of expelling urine; also called micturation
Voiding Expelling urine from the bladder
Urinal A basin or container for collecting urine
Incontinence Inability to control urination.
Catheter Tube for injecting or removing fluids; urinary catheter is a tube placed into the urethra and bladder to collect urine.
Specific gravity Comparison of density of urine with that of water, reflecting the amounts of wastes, minerals and solids in the urine. Elevated in diabetes.
Hemiodialysis The process of removing blood from an artery to remove wastes and adjust fluid and electrolyte balance, then returning it to a vein.
Peritoneal dialysis Fluid is introduced into the peritoneal cavity causing wastes from the capillaries to pass out of the blood and into the fluid which is then withdrawn.
ARF Acute renal failure
ESRD End stage renal failure
Created by: rvanderp