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Pharm-Chpt 27

Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
Goals of General Anesthesia Analgesia, unconsciousness,amnesia
Analgesia is? loss of pain perception
Unconsciousness is? loss of awareness of surroundings
Amnesia is? Inability to recall what took place
The use of a combination of drugs, each with specific effect is Balanced Anesthesia
Agents involved in balanced anesthesia preop meds, sedative hypnotics, antiemetics, antihistamines,and narcotics
3 stages of administration of general anesthesia Induction, Maintance, and recovery
Induction phase of general anesthesia is the period from? the period from beginning of anesthesia until stage 3 is reached
Maintenance phase of general anesthesia is the period from? the period from stage 3 until surgical procedure is complete
Recovery phase of general anesthesia is the period from? is the period from discontinuation of anestehic until patient regains consciousness
General Anesthetics depress? depress RAS and cerebral cortex
General Anesthetics depresses RAS and cerebral cortex causing? sedation, hypnosis, anesthesia, amnesia, unconsciousness
Caution for General Anesthetics status asthmaticus, increased intracranial pressure, and myasthenia gravis
General Anesthetics adverse reactions circulatory depression(hypotension, shock, decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias), respiratory depression, NV, HA, malignant hyperthermia
Drug-Drug for Anesthetics Ketamine and halothane, barbiturate and narcotics, Midazolam and inhaled
Types of General Anesthetics barbiturate, non-barbiturate, gases and volatile liquids
Types of Barbiturate Anesthetics Thiopental(Pentothal), Methohexital(Brevital)
Pentothal- onset? Recovery period? Rapid onset/ ultra-short recovery period
Brevital- onset? recovery period? Rapid onset/extremely short recovery period
Types of non-barbiturate anesthetics Midazolam, Droperidol(Inapsine), Etomidate(Amidate), Ketmaine(Keetalar), and Propofol(Diprivan)
Midazolam-- onset? causes?? rapid onset, causes NV
Inapsine-- onset? contra? rapid onset, don't use with renal or hepatic failure
Amidate--onset? recovery? contra? rapid onset and recovery/ don't use less than 10yrs old
Keetalar function makes a state of unconsciousness
Diprivan? short action; bradycardia and hypotension
Nonbarbiturate anesthetic prototype Midazolam
Midazolam for? sedation, amiolysis, and amnesia before diagnostic, therapeutic, and endoscopic procedures
Adverse effects of midazolam drowsiness, sedation, lethargy, apathy, fatigue, constipation, diarrhea, incontinence, urinary retention, bradycardia, tachycardia, phlebitis at IV injection site
Types of Gas Anesthetics nitrous oxide(blue cylinder). cyclopropane (orange cylinder), and ethylene(red cylinder)
Prototype anesthesia gas Nitrous oxide
Cyclopropane-- onset? recovery? rapid onset and recovery
Less toxic than most other gas anesthetics. Ethylene
Types of volatile liquids --end in ane)-- fluothane, suprane, ethrane, isoflurance, penthrane, ultrane
Prototype for Volatile Liquids Halothane(Fluothane)
With general anesthetics, monitor?(5) Monitor respirations(maintain airway), cardiac status(ECG), level of consciousness, temperature, and reflexes
With general anesthetics, provide?(3) provide safety, comfort measures, orientation
Local anesthesia is? is a temporary iterruption in production and conduction of nerve impulses
Local anesthesia affects? affects permeability of nerve membranes to sodium ion
Local anesthesiais has less systemic absorption with? has less systemic absorption with epinephrine
local anesthesia can be used?(6) can be used topically(skin, throat, anal/rectal), infiltration(directly into tissue), field block(around area), peripheral nerve block, epidural, and spinal
Examples of local anesthetics Lidocaine(xylocaine,dilocaine, solarcaine, lidoderm, octcaine)
Pre and post op care for local anesthetics -assess for past allergic response -observe for shock(antiphylatic), systemic absorption(HA,restlessness, anxiety,tremors, blurred vision, NV, arrhythmias, vasodilation, cardiac arrest, resp. arrest -teach about prolonged blockade
Created by: mhruska
 

 



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