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Procedures Ch 10

the general shape of the human body that determines the size, shape, position, and movement of the internal organs body habitus
bounded by the walls of the thorax and extends from the superior thoracic aperture to the inferior thoracic aperture thoracic cavity
the top of the thoracic cavity where structures enter the thorax superior thoracic aperture
the bottom of the thoracic cavity inferior thoracic aperture
separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity diaphragm
The anatomic structures that pass from the thorax to the abdomen go through openings in the: diaphragm
The thoracic cavity contains: * the lungs and heart * organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular and lymphatic systems * the inferior portion of the esophagus * the thymus gland
The 3 Chambers of the Thoracic Cavity: * pericardial cavity * right pleural cavity * left pleural cavity
shiny, slippery, and delicate membranes that line the thoracic cavities serous membranes
The space between the two pleural cavities and contains all the thoracic structures except the lungs and pleurae is called the: mediastinum
The respiratory system consists of: * trachea * bronchi * two lungs
a fibrous, muscular tube with 16 to 20 C-shaped cartilaginous rings embedded in its walls trachea
the last tracheal cartilage that is elongated and has a hooklike process that divides the trachea into two lesser tubes is called the: carina
Subdivisions of the Bronchial Tree: * Trachea * Primary Bronchi * Secondary Bronchi * Tertiary Bronchi * Bronchioles * Terminal Bronchioles
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion within the walls of the: alveoli
the organs of respiration that comprise the mechanism for introducing oxygen into the blood and removing carbon dioxide from the blood lungs
these communicate with the terminal bronchioles alveolar ducts
located at the end of the alveolar ducts alveolar sacs
these line the walls of the alveolar sacs alveoli
the lungs are made up of this light, spongy, highly elastic substance parenchyma
What is the most common chest projection? PA
When performing a PA chest projection, which body plane should be centered to the grid? Midsagittal
When performing an x-ray these 3 things need to be totally aligned: * source * patient * image receptor
What is the SID for a PA chest projection? 72 inches
At what level should the central ray, perpendicular to the IR, be centered when performing a PA chest? at the level of T-7
How far above the shoulders should the top of the IR be when performing a PA chest projection? 1.5 to 2 inches above the shoulders
What size image receptor should be used when performing a chest x-ray? 14 x 17
True or False: Slight rotation from PA or lateral projection causes considerable distortion of the heart shadow. True
Where vessels enter a lung hilum
superior portion of a lung apex
inferior border of thoracic cavity diaphragm
respiratory organ lung
major airway tube trachea
number of lobes in the right lung 3
side of lung where vessels enter medial
double-walled, serous membrane sac pleura
respiratory sacs alveoli
anterior bony wall of the mediastinum sternum
area between the lungs mediastinum
mediastinal organ heart
mediastinal blood vessel aorta
major section of a lung lobe
this lung has 2 lobes left
inferior part of a lung base
pertaining to the chest cavity thoracic
these branch from the trachea bronchi
separates a lung into lobes fissure
Which cavity contains the heart and lungs? Thoracic
Which structure separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity? diaphragm
Which part of the thoracic cavity contains all thoracic organs except the lungs and pleurae? mediastinum
Which bony structure forms the anterior border of the mediastinum? sternum
What mediastinal structure consists of C-shaped cartilaginous rings? trachea
What area of the trachea divides into two lesser tubes? carina
Which structures branch from the distal end of the trachea? primary bronchi
Which primary bronchus is shorter and wider than the other? right
What thoracic structures are the organs of respiration? lungs
What is the name of the medial aspect of each lung in which the primary bronchus enters? hilum
What is the name of the superior portion of each lung? apex
Which structures are at the terminal end of the respiratory system? alveoli
How many lobes are found in the right lung? 3
How many lobes are found in the left lung? 2
What determines how many degrees a patient should rotate for the PA oblique projection LAO? the desired structures to be demonstrated (more rotation when the heart is the primary interest)
When performing the PA oblique projection, LAO to demonstrate lungs, how many degrees should the patient be rotated? 45
When performing the oblique projection, LAO position to demonstrate the heart and great vessels, how many degrees should the patient be rotated? 55 to 60 (from 45 degrees, increase 10 to 20 degrees more)
With reference to patient respiration, when should the exposure be made during a PA oblique projection? after 2nd full inspiration
To what level of the patient should the central ray be directed during a PA oblique projection? at level of T-7
Which PA oblique projection provides the best view of the left atrium and the entire left branch of the bronchial tree? RAO position (right anterior oblique)
True or False: When viewing PA oblique projection radiographs, the patient's left side, should be toward the viewer's right side. True
True or False: The heart and mediastinal structures should be clearly demonstrated within the lung field of the elevated side in oblique images of 45 degree of body rotation. True
True or False: When viewing PA oblique projection radiographs (LAO) position, the left lung should be partially superimposed by the spine. True
Which side, the one closer to or the one further from the IR is generally the side of interest? the side closest to the IR
Which AP oblique image, the RPO position or the LPO position, demonstrates the maximum area of the left lung? LPO (Left posterior oblique)
What is the minimum recommended SID? 72 inches or 183 cm (2.54 x 72)
Which AP oblique projection produces an image very similar to that produced by the PA oblique projection RAO position? LPO (left posterior oblique)
What is the corresponding position to the RPO position? LAO
What is the corresponding position to the LPO position? RAO
How many degrees should the patient be rotated for an AP oblique projection? 45 degrees
How far above the top of the shoulders should the upper boarder of the IR be placed? 1.5 to 2 inches above the vertebral prominens or about 5 inches above the jugular notch
What breathing instructions should be given to the patient for an AP oblique projection? hold breath in after 2nd inspiration
To what level of the patient should the central ray be directed when performing an AP oblique projection? about 3 inches below the jugular notch
What is the recommended SID for an AP chest projection? 72 or 60 inches depending on equipment limitations
What body plane should be centered to the midline of the IR when performing an AP chest projection? midsagittal plane
With reference to the patient, where should the IR be placed when performing an AP chest projection? 1.5 to 2 inches above the relaxed shoulders
If the patient's condition permits, how should the arms and shoulders be positioned when performing an AP chest projection? with elbows flexed, pronate the hands and place them on the hips to draw the scapula laterally
Why should the patient perform the recommended breathing instructions? to ensure maximum expansion of the lungs
List 3 evaluation criteria that indicate the patient was properly positioned for an AP chest projection. * trachea should be seen in the midline * the lung fields should be seen from the apices to the costophrenic angles * the medial portion of the clavicals should be equidistant from the vertebral column
Created by: kkant