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Psychology 1 Midterm

Flashcards for psychology 1

mind-body or mind-brain problem how experience relates to the brain. dualism - the mind is separate from the brain but somehow controls the brain monism - the concious experience is inseparable from the physical brain
major philosophical quandaries -mind-body problem -dualism/monism -determinism vs free-will -nature vs nurture
free will vs determinism free will- belief that behavior is caused by a person's independent actions determinism- everything that happens has a cause
nature vs nurture issue -how do differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and environment? -genetic predisposition, or life experiences?
burden of proof -the obligation to present evidence to support one's claim
falsifiability of hypotheses -a hypothesis is FALSIFIED (proved incorrect) if evidence counting against it exists -a hypothesis is FALSIFIABLE if we can imagine something that would count as evidence against it
replicability of findings -ensuring that anyone can obtain (at least approximately) the same results by following the same procedures -scientists insist on replicable results
parsimonious explanation when given a choice among explanations that seem to fit the facts, we prefer the one whose assumptions are fewer, simpler, or more consistent with other well-established theories
devaluation of anecdotal evidence anecdotes- people's reports of isolated events, such as an amazing coincidence or a dream or hunch that comes true.
major philosophical quandaries -mind-brain problem -dualism/monism -free will vs. determinism -nature vs. nurture
qualities of the scientific method -burden of proof -falsifiability of hypothesis -replicability of findings -parsimonious explanation -devaluation of anecdotal evidence
obstacles to experimental objectivity -experimenter bias --tendency of an experimenter to distort the results of an experiment based on the expected outcome -demand characteristics --cues that tell participants what is expected of them and what the experimenter hopes to find
ways to maximize experimental objectivity -"blinds" on observers/participants -placebos
naturalistic observation -a careful examination of what happens under more or less natural conditions
case history -a thorough description of a person with a rare condition, includes: --abilities/disabilities --medical condition --life history --unusual experiences --whatever else is relevant
correlational study -a procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between two variables without controlling either of them
correlation vs. causation -to determine causation, an investgator needs to manipulate one of the variables -correlation is simply an observation of how two variables correlate with one another
experiment -a study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable
experimental and control conditions -experimental condition is the condition being tested -control condition is the condition that the condition being tested is being compared to
dependent and independent variables -dependent variable is the item that an experimenter measures to determine how it was affected (the result) -the independent variable is the item that the experimenter changes or controls (cause)
descriptive vs. inferential statistics -descriptive statistics are mathematical summaries of results -inferential statistics are statements about a large population based on an inference from a small sample
amygdala and emotion -amygdala is a gateway for parts of the brain that deal with decision-making, memory, and motivation -when monkeys amygdala's were destroyed, they lost their appreciation of what objects were for
personality changes in TLE -TLE- temporal lobe epilepsy (affects amygdala) -defensive aggression -obsession w/ detail and meaningfulness of trivia -talkativeness and excessive writing -interpersonal viscosity -hypermorality & diminished sense of humor -hyperreligiosity -fe
MM and religiosity -MM- Meaning Machinery -if malfunctioning MM can produce hyperreligiosity, does our normal MM produce normal religiosity? --many neuroscientists suggest this -religion is the effort of our MM to make sense of an often illogical world
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) -thrombotic/embolic stroke -ruptured aneurysms -hemorrhagic stroke
electroencephalography (EEG) measuring and amplifying slight electrical changes on the scalp that reflect brain activity
hindbrain w/ functions -pons and medulla --protective reflexes --infant reflexes --orienting reflexes --cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive reflexes -cerebellum --"old" (inner) cerebellum - balance --"new (outer) cerebellum - rapid automatic movements, timing of mov
midbrain w/ functions -reticular formation --general arousal --sleep/wake cycles --pain perception -superior colliculi --visual targeting - saccades -inferior colliculi --auditory targeting
forebrain w/ functions -basal forebrain --hypothalamus ---pituitary gland (bone growth) ---autonomic nervous system, immune system ---hunger/thirst/body temp ---sexual orientation ---reward and punishment --thalamus ---sensory relay station
forebrain w/ functions (cont'd) -"old cortex" --limbic system ---complex reaction patterns --basal ganglia ---background postural movements ---smooth pursuit eye movements ---regulation of foreground/background thinking
autonomic nervous system w/ branches -ANS-section of the nervous system that controls the functioning of the internal organs such as the heart -sympathetic branch --increases process important for 'fight-or-flight' situations -parasympathetic branch --promotes restful/relaxing activities
limbic system w/ functions -old cortex -complex reaction patterns ("4 F's") -support emotion, behavior, long term memory
lobes of neocortex w/ functions frontal lobe -strategic thinking, social cognition, short term memory, language/music, voluntary movement Parietal Lobe -complex visual/touch perception, (R) body sense, (L) arithmatic L/R sense
lobes of neocortex w/ functions (cont'd) Temportal Lobe -hearing/language decoding, long term memory, face/object identification Occipital Lobe -visual pattern recognition (optical "grasping")
parkinson's disease -disease involving basal ganglia (part of "old cortex" in forebrain) -resting tremor -rigidity -slowed movements -confusion
corpus callosum -a set of axons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
neglect syndrome -where patients neglect one side of a paper/drawing -damaged right parietal lobe
major endocrine glands and functions -thyroid --controls metabolic rate -anterior pituitary --controls other glands -posterior petuitary --controls blood pressure/urine volume -hypothalamus --control pituitary gland
synapse specialized junction between one neuron and another
action potential "all-or-none" law -action potential --an excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strength, no matter how far it must travel --yes-no or on-off message (like a light switch)... "all or none" law --allows full-strength message over long distances
resting potential -an electrical polarization across the membrane (covering) of an axon -when an axon is not stimulated, its membrane has a resting potential
parts of a neuron cell: cell body (soma) dendrites axon -cell body (soma) --contains the nucleus of the cell -dendrites --widely branching structures that receive info from other neuron cells -axon --single long, thin, straight fiber with branches near its tip --transmits information to other cells
axon terminals (terminal boutons) -when an action potential reaches the terminal bouton it releases a neurotransmitter
neurotransmitter reuptake -after a neurotransmitter excites a receptor, it may be reabsorbed by the axon that released it -allows for the recycling of neurotransmitters & regulates the level of neurotransmitter present in the synapse -antidepressant drugs block this reuptake
glial cells and functions -nervous system cells which support the neurons in many ways --insulating neurons --synchronizing activity among neighboring neurons --removing waste products
neurotransmitters w/ examples -neurotransmitter is a chemical that activates receptors on other neurons --serotonin modifies many types of motivated/emotional behavior --dopamine is important for movement (damaged in parkinson's disease), memory, and cognition
more neurotransmitter examples -histamine --increases arousal and alertness -endorphins --decrease pain and increase pleasure
common classes of drugs and their brain effects -stimulants --increase energy, alertness, and activity --cocaine -depressants --decrease arousal --alcohol -narcotics --produce drowsiness and insensitivity to pain --opiates (heroine, meth, codeine) -hallucinogens --induce sensory distortions
reticular formation w/ functions -midbrain, controls: --general arousal --sleep/wake cycles --pain perception
orienting response -pons and medulla (hindbrain) function
reflexes infant ("pathological") reflexes protective reflexes -functions of pons and medulla (hindbrain) -babinski reflex (when foot is poked) -rooting & moro reflexes (baby latches onto finger with mouth) -patellar tendon reflex (knee)
phrenology -concept that the brain is the organ of the mind -certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules
saccades vs. smooth tracking eye movements -saccades are jerky eye movements controlled by midbrain superior colliculi -smooth eye movements controlled by basal ganglia of forebrain
"binding problem" -question of how separate brain areas combine forces to produce a unified perception of a single object
language areas of brain -frontal and temporal lobes -broca's and wernicke's areas -primary auditory, visual, and motor cortexes -arcuate fasciculus -angular gyrus
convolutions (wrinkles) in neocortex and reason -gyri -folds increase surface area considerably without taking up too much more volume --"so women can walk upright/normally"
effects of prefrontal damage and prefrontal lobotomy -reduced behavioral spontaneity ("flat affect") -similar pre vs. post IQ -concrete verbalizations -perseveration -failure to sequence behaveior (poor following of instructions) -loss of strategic thinking -pseudodepression, pseudopsychopathy
effects of split brain preparation -when shown an image on patients left visual field, they are unable to vocally name what they have seen
nonfluent (broca's) and fluent (wernicke's) aphasis -broca's aphasis- loss of the ability to produce spoken language (spoken or written) wernicke's aphasis- patients can speak with normal grammar and sound fine, but the language content is incorrect
hemispheric lateralization -the fact that certain functions are located on either the right or left side of the brain -many popular lateralizations are often distributed across both sides (must be careful about this generalization)
psychophysics -mind-nature (world of the spirit - world of things) -detection (is anything there?) -recognition (what is it?) -scaling (how much of it is there?) -discrimination (are these things different?)
thresholds (limen) absolute limen, difference limen -aboslute limen- the weakest stimulus that can be detected reliably -difference limen- the smallest difference between two stimuli that can be detected reliably
fovea -the central area of the human retina -adapted for highly detailed vision
blind spot -the retinal area where the optic nerve exits -no room for receptors because exiting axons take up all the space
trichromatic theory -states that our receptors respond to three primary colors -in modern terms, we say that color vision depends on the response rates of three types of cones
opponent-process theory -we perceive color in terms of paired opposites -red vs green, yellow vs blue, white vs black -experiences of one color after the removal of another are called negative afterimages
retinex theory -we perceive color when the cerebral cortex compares various retinal patterns -key word here is COMPARES
nature of "color-blindness" -"color-blindness" is misleading because very few people are totally unable to distinguish colors -a small number of people have difficulty distinguishing red from green
pitch and frequency loudness and amplitude -frequency is the number of cycles a wave goes through per second. pitch is a perception closely related to frequency --high frequency = high pitched, etc -loudness is a perception that depends on the amplitude (intensity) of sound waves
conduction vs. nerve deafness -conduction deafness results when the bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea --can still hear their own voice -nerve deafness results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve
frequency theory -at low frequencies, a sound wave through the fluid of the cochlea vibrates all the hair cells, which produce action potentials in synchrony with the sound waves
volley principle -at non-low frequencies, each sound wave excites at least a few hair cells and "volleys" (groups) of them respond to each vibration by producing an action potential
place theory -the highest frequency sounds vibrate hair cells near the stirrup end -lower frequency sounds vibrate hair cells at points farther along the membrane
methods of sound localization -timing (when the message hits each ear determines which direction it comes from) -intensity (which ear hears the sound louder?) --distance... sound gets louder we perceive it as getting closer to us (frequency also helps us perceive distance of sounds)
vestibular system and structures involved -vestibular system controls vestibular sense --detects tilt of head, acceleration of head, and orientation of head with respect to gravity -composed of 3 semicircular canals, oriented in 3 directions, and 2 otolith organs
placebo -a drug or other procedure that has no important effects other than those that result from people's expectations
gate theory of pain -pain messages must pass through a gate, presumably in the spinal cord, that can block the messages (preventing them from advancing to the brain)
neurotransmitters involved in pain -all pains release the neurotransmitter glutamate -intense pain also releases neurotransmitter substance P
endorphins -other neurons release endorphins, which are neurotransmitters that inhibit the release of substance P and thereby weaken pain sensations
phantom limb -continuing sensations, including pain, in a limb long after it has been amputated -generally people who learn to use an artificial limb lose their phantoms
olfaction -sense of smell
pheromones -chemicals that are released into the environment
menstrual synchrony -young women who are in frequent contacts (such as college roommates) tend to synchronize their menstrual cycles, probably as a result of pheromones they secrete
signal-detection theory -the study of people's tendencies to make hits, correct rejections, misses, and false alarms (such as eye test)
subliminal perception -the idea that stimuli sometimes influence our behavior even when they are presented so faintly or briefly that we do not perceive them conciously
gestalt approach -the ability to perceive something in more than one way is the basis of gestalt psychology -gestalt psychology is a field that focuses on our ability to perceive overall patterns
perceptual constancies -vision -movement -depth
constancies in vision -visual constancy is our tendency to perceive objects as keeping their shape, size, and color, despite certain distortions in the light pattern reaching our retinas
induced movement -when we incorrectly perceive an object as moving against a stationary background
stroboscobic movement -an illusion of movement created by a rapid succession of stationary images (a flip book)
retinal disparity -the difference in the apparent position of an object as seen by the left and right retinas
ocular convergence -the degree to which eyes turn in to focus on a close object
binocular cues cues that depend on both eyes (retinal disparity and ocular convergence)
monocular cues -enable someone to judge depth and distance with just one eye or when both eyes see the same image, such as when you look at a picture -object size, linear perspective, detail, interposition, texture gradient, shadows, accommodation, and motion parallax
motion parallax -the difference in speed of movement of images across the retina as you travel
anomalous motion and explanation -illusions that look "squirmy" when really they are staying still
phi effect -illusion of light moving back and forth between two locations
sleep-wake cycle -governed by an internal 25-hour circadian rhythm, tuned externally to 24 hours by the sun
circadian and ultradian rhythms -sleep-wake cycle is governed by internal 25-hour circadian rhythm, tuned externally to 24 hours by the sun -REM periods alternate with non-REM periods according to a 90-100 minute ultradian rhythm
melatonin -sleep onset is triggered by the release of melatonin from the pineal gland -sleep medications often facilitate or inhibit this sleep-related neurotransmitter
REM vs NREM sleep -REM sleep can be exhausting, last longer as night progresses -EEG similar to waking state, heightened physiological activity, erection of sexual tissue, vivid visual dreams, etc -NREM sleep has multiple stages --transition,point of no return,deep sl
REM sleep throughout the night -alternate every 90-100 minutes -REM periods get longer as the night progresses -REM sleep can be exhausting
functions of rapid eye movements and REM-period sexual responses -striate muscle tone greatly reduced -rapid, jerky, desynchronous eye movements -erection of sexual tissue -vivid visual dreams
repair/restoration vs energy conservation theories of sleep -repair/restore is the theory that sleep helps us recover something depleted during wakefulness -energy conservation theory (thermoregulatory) claims that sleep keeps us from overheating and helps us conserve energy -neither theory works very well
dreaming in REM vs non-REM sleep -REM-sleep dream reports tend to describe more visual and active dreams -this may be because of the state that people are in when they are reporting the dreams... someone reporting a non-REM sleep dream is very groggy/out of it
findings about dream content -dreams contain more bad outcomes than good outcomes (negative emotions over positive emotions), aggressive interactions than friendly -themes vary litter year after year -children have "fantastic" rather than realistic dreams, dream more about animals
findings about dream content (cont'd) -men dream about other men 70% of the time, women dream about men and women 50:50 -sex dreams uncommon, beset with conflict, often involve people dreamers not attracted to
activation-synthesis vs neurocognitive theories of dreaming -activation-synthesis theory claims input arising from the pons activates the brain during REM sleep. the cortex takes that haphazard activity plus whatever stimuli strike the sense organs and does its best to synthesize a story to make sense of it
activation-synthesis vs neurocognitive theories of dreaming (cont'd) -activation-synthesis theory does not regard our dreams as meaningless -- the meaning is an accidental by-product of the dream -neurocognitive theory treats dreams as a kind of thinking that occurs under special conditions
sleep and aging -people sleep less as they get older and the proportion of time in REM sleep decreases -sleep gets lighter and wakefulness gets sleepier -sleep problems often due to illness, pain, breathing problems, frequent need to urinate
sleep paralysis -occurs in REM sleep -wake up but feel like you are being held down / cannot move or yell
airway (obstructive) apnea -people with sleep apnea fail to breathe for a minute or more while sleeping and then wake up gasping for breath
night terrors -a night terror causes someone to awaken screaming and sweating with a racing heart rate, sometimes flailing with the arms and pounding the walls -occur during stage 3 or stage 4 non-REM sleep
sleep walking/talking -sleep talking most common during stage 2, but occurs during all stages -sleepwalking tends to run in families, mostly children, mostly during stage 4 of sleep
narcolepsy -people with narcolepsy experience sudden attacks of extreme sleepiness in the middle of the day
provigil (modafinil) -selective CNS stimulant that affects hypothalamus and prefrontal areas -enhances wakefulness while awake -no sleep rhythm disturbance or REM rebound -used by armed forces (repeat doses can result in 2-3 days of normal wakefulness)
effects of sleep deprivation -missing 1 night causes sleepiness but little impairment -missing 2 or more nights sleep causes progressive cognitive and motor impairment -"microsleeps" begin to intrude on wakefulness -doesn't cause lasting mental illness -REM rebound on resuming sl
ingredients of good sleep hygiene -chronic, constant, moderate exercise -no after-dinner exercise -minimal stimulant use -constant sleep/wake up times -minimal noise -darkness, stillness -constant diet
hypnosis -a condition of increased suggestibility that occurs in the context of a special hypnotist-subject relationship
what hypnosis can and cannot do -can: --produce relaxation, concentration, and changes in behavior --inhibit pain --posthypnotic suggestion (after coming out of hypnosis) --hallucinations -cannot: --improve balance --enhance memory
effects of hypnosis on memory -does not really enhance memory -- people are just more suggestible
i. pavlov -russion physiologist, won nobel prize for research on digestion -classical/pavlonian conditioning --process by which an organism learns a new association between two stimuli-a neutral stimulus and one that already evokes a reflexive response
CS, US -conditioned stimulus (bell) --response that depends on preceding conditions -unconditioned stimulus (meat) --event that automatically elicits an unconditional response
UR, CR -unconditioned response (salivate) --action that the unconditioned stimulus elicits -conditioned response --whatever response the conditioned stimulus begins to elicit as a result of the conditioning (training) procedure
formation of conditioned reflex start with unconditional reflex -meat-->salivate predict US using CS many times -bell-->meat-->slurp results in: -bell-->slurp
bulimia and classical conditioning -full stomach after binge --> finger down throat --> nausea, purging results: full stomach after binge --> nausea, purging
post-traumatic stress disorder and classical conditioning weapon sound --> blast --> intense fear result: jackhammer --> intense fear
e. l. thorndike -put cats into a puzzle box, from which they could escape by pressing a lever -the cats learned to make whatever response opened the box, especially if the box opened quickly -father of operant conditioning
aversive conditioning -application of classical conditioning -addictions -obesity -ego-dystonic homosexuality
law of effect -of several responses made to the same situation those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation so that when it recurs they'll be likely to recur
operant conditioning the process of changing behavior by providing a reinforcement after a response
reinforcement vs punishment -reinforcement is the process of increasing the future probability of the most recent response ("stamps in" or strengthens the response) -punishment decreases the probability of a response
systematic desensitization -getting over phobias by training people to stay relaxed throughout a hierarchy of "scary" situations (snake-phobia example)
aversion therapy -getting over addiction by using what you are addicted to with something bad (i.e alcoholism, mixing whiskey with something that makes you throw up)
b.f. skinner -demonstrated many uses of operant conditioning --made rats press levers and pigeons peck at an illuminated key to receive food -viewed that behavior is defined by its outcome, not by muscle movements
shaping establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations (example: little girl on water slide)
schedules of reinforcement -rules for the delivery of reinforcement --fixed ratio --fixed interval --variable ratio --variable interval -ratio schedule provides reinforcements depending on the number of responses
"a-b-c's" of operant conditioning -a: antecedent stimulus -b: behavior -c: consequence -given a particular situation [a], the nature of the consequences [c] of an animal's behavior [b] will tend to change the likelihood that the animal will repeat that behavior
operant extinction -in operant conditioning, extinction occurs if responses stop producing reinforcements --i.e. ask someone to dinner a few times... after they say "no" a few times you simply stop asking
habituation -process in which there is a decrease in psychological and behavioral response to a stimulus after repeated exposure to that stimulus over a duration of time
associationism -refers to the idea that mental processes operate by the association of one state with its successor states -laws of association --frequency --intensity --contiguity
types of psychology -experimental ("hard") psychology (pysiological psychology) -applied ("soft") psychology (educational and school psychology)
tabula rasa doctrine w/ rationale -individuals are born without built-in mental content and their knowledge comes from experience and perception -favors the "nurture" side of the nature vs nurture debate
premack principle -more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors
"little albert" study: rationale and reinterpretation -used fear and pavlonian conditioning to condition albert certain ways -'little albert' was actually a mentally retarded child who died very young later on
ebbinghaus & cvc's -used nonsense syllables (gak, jek, pox) to test how long it took to memorize lists -very early memory research
"forgetting curve" and decay amount remembered decreases as time elapsed since learning increases
nature of iconic memory (sensory store) -memory in organs such as a camera flash, or ears ringing even after hearing loud music
levels-of-processing principle -how easily you retrieve a memory depends on the number and types of associations you form
encoding specificity principle -the associations you form at the time of learning will be the most effective retrieval cues later
mnemonic devices -a mnemonic device is any memory aid that relies on encoding each itrem in a special way -i.e. AGBDF (a good boy does fine)
types of memory interference -proactive interference: old materials increase forgetting of the new materials -retroactive interference: new materials increase forgetting of old materials
childhood, retrograde, anterograde amnesias -childhood: cannot remember things before 3-4 years old (linguistic issue) -retrograde: loss of memory for events that occurred shortly before brain damage -anterograde: inability to store new long term memories
korsakoff's syndrome -caused by prefrontal cortex damage -condition caused by a prolonged deficiency of vitamin B1, usually as a result of chronic alcoholism -often suffer from apathy, confusion, and amnesia
characteristics of working (short-term) memory -few items (5-7) -lasts short period (20-30 sec) -requires sustained attention, vulnerable to distraction -circulating, aided by chunking -"scratchpad" memory
characteristics of long term memory (LTM) -unknown capacity limits -includes intentional and incidental memory (intentional memory more effective) -lasting memories occur only after age 3-4) -some memories last a lifetime (permastore) -memories are reconstructed, not replayed exactly
permastore -memories that last a lifetime
incidental vs intentional memory -incidental- stuff you just know because you've picked up on it (i.e. details on a penny) -intentional- things that you consciously made a note to remember
explicit vs implicit memory declarative vs procedural memory -explicit (declarative)- stating an answer as a product of memory (recalling a fact, for example) -implicit memory (procedural)- an experience or event influences what you say or do even though you might not be aware of the influence. i.e riding a bik
semantic vs episodic memory -both are declarative (explicit) memory types -semantic- memory of princicples and facts -episodic- memory for specific events in your life
primacy and recency effects -first and last things in the list are easiest to remember (want to be the first person or the last person interviewed for a job, not someone in the middle)
types of clustering -serial- clustering things in small groups in order in which they were said -semantic- organize into groups or categories for recall
cued recall enhancement -given a list it is hard to recall everything in the list, but if you are given cues you can easily determine if the cue was on the list or if it was not
recognition enhancement -similar to cued recall, but if given an option of several cues, the person will be able to choose (recognize) the correct cue
process of memory reconstruction -during an original experience, we construct a memory. when we try to retrieve that memory, we reconstruct an account based partly on surviving memories and partly on our expectations of what must have happened
hindsight bias -the tendency to mold our recollection of the past to fit how events later turned out
false memory effect -when attempting to recover a "lost memory", a therapist who repeatedly encourages a client to recall lost memories can unintentionally implant a false memory (a report that someone believes to be a memory but doesn't correspond to real events)
ECT -electroconvulsive therapy: retrograde amnesia is frequently seen with use of ECT -"shock" therapy.. seizures are electrically induced in patients for therapeutic effect -used today to treat major depression
effects of alzheimer's-type dementia -severe memory loss -confusion -depression -disordered thinking -impaired attention
ideomotor effect -psychological phenomenon where a subject makes motions unconciously -subject reacts reflexively to ideas alone without the person conciously deciding to take action
post-synaptic receptors -do something that results in the initiation of an action potential
Created by: mrdecoteau
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