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Infection Control*

Pathogens are divided into four basic infectious agents list them? 1. Bacteria 2. Viruses 3. Fungi 4. Protozoan Parasites.
Briefly explain what bacteria is? They are microscopic, single-celled organisms with a simple internal organization.
Give one example of a bacteria? Streptococcal Pharyngitis(strep throat), Klebsiella Pneumoniae Infection(bacterial pneumonia), and Clostridium Botulinum(food poisoning)
Briefly explain what viruses is? A virus carries its own genetic information in the form of DNA or RNA, but never both. A protein coat(very hard) called a capsid surrounds the viral DNA or RNA.
Give one example of a virus? Rhinovirus(common cold), EpsteinBarr virus(infectious mononucleosis or mono), and Papillomavirus(Warts).
Briefly explain what fungi is? They can be macroscopic, as in the case of mushrooms and puffballs, or microscopic, such as yeast and molds. They are eucaryotic organisms with a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Give one example of a fungus? Tinea Pedis(athlete's foot or ringworm).
Briefly explain what protozoan parasites is? They are unicellular organisms that are neither plants nor animals. They are able to ingest food particles, and some species are equipped with rudimentary digestive systems.
Give on example of a protozoan parasite? Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection(STD that infects both male and female host), and Plasmodium Vivax Infection(malaria).
List 6 steps of establishment of infectious diseases? 1. Encounter 2. Entry 3. Spread 4. Multiplication 5. Damage 6. Outcome.
What happens in the encounter step? The encounter involves the infectious organism coming in contact with the host.
What happens in the entry step? Much of the body is in contact with the external environment. The digestive, biliary, urinary, and respiratory systems are in direct connection with the exterior. This deals with how it enters the body.
What happens in the spread step? The organism multiplies and spreads out in the body.
What happens in the multiplication step? The number of microbes that gain entrance into the host is usually much too small to cause the symptoms of a disease. Most infectious agents must first multiply for their impact to be recognized.
What happens in the damage step? Virtually uncountable ways exist in which an infectious agent can cause damage to a host. Damage can be either direct or indirect. Cell death caused by destruction of the host cells or by toxins or poisons secreted by the infectious agent(direct).
What happens in the outcome step? 1. The host gains control of the infectious agent and eliminates it 2. The infectious agent overcomes the host to cause a disease 3. The host and infectious agent compromise.
Which mod of transmission involves touching of some sort? Direct host-to-host transmission.
What are some examples of Direct host-to-host transmission? Handholding, coughing, or sexual contact.
What is a vector? An arthropod such as mosquito, flea, or tick that enters and exits the body that transfers an infective agent from one host to another.
What is an example of a vector? Deer tick which transmits Lyme disease.
What is a fomite? An inanimate object that has been contact with an infectious organism.
What is an example of a fomite? Food and water, radiographic equipment, and latex gloves.
What is a reservoir? The site where an infectious organism can remain alive and from which transmission can occur.
What is an example of a reservoir? People, animals(cows and insects), and inanimate objects.
What does Nosocomial mean? Pertaining to or originating in the hospital; said of an infection not present or incubating before admittance to the hospital but generally occurring 72 hours after admittance.
What is Iatrogenic mean? Resulting from the activities of physicians.
Patients that have weakened resistance to infectious organisms because of their admitting illness are said to be what? Compromised or immunosuppressed.
What are some sources of cross-infection within the hospital? Medical personnel, patient flora, contaminated hospital environment, blood-borne pathogens, and invasive procedures.
What are some ways medical personnel can cause cross infection? Direct skin-to-skin contact or indirect contact by ingestion or inhalation. Examples food handlers can contaminate food eaten by the patient, nurse sneeze on hand and touch patient, or surgeons carrying organisms in facial hair.
What are some ways patient flora can cause cross infection? Staphylococci and streptococci are harbored in the nasopharynx of almost every healthy person.
What are some ways contaminated hospital equipment can cause cross infection? Fomites, such as instruments, fluids, food, air, and medications.
What are blood-borne pathogens and examples? Disease-causing microorganisms that may be present in human blood. Hepatitus B virus(HBV) and HIV.
What is asepsis? freedom from infection.
What are the two types of asepsis? Medical and surgical asepsis.
What is medical asepsis? Reduction in numbers of infectious agents, which, in turn, decreases the probability of infection but does not necessarily reduce it to zero.
What is surgical asepsis? Procedure used to prevent contamination by microbes and endospores before, during, or after surgery using sterile technique.
What is morphology? The size and shape of the bacteria.
What is morphology routinely determined by a simple staining technique called? Gram staining.
Created by: elkins.brett