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Ch. 2A psych.

David G. Myers psychology study guide

QuestionAnswer
Every Psychology is______________ simultaneously biological.
A German physician named ____________ invented phrenology [insert definition] Franz Gall; the incorrect theory that stated that the bumps on the skull revealed our mental abilities and characteristics.
Biological Psychology a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. ( ex. neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, psychological psychologists, or biopsychologists.)
We are ________________ systems. bio-psycho-social
What allows scientists to study the human brain but still have the ability to compare their brain functions to our own? Though human brains are more complex, they follow the same principles that govern all of the animal world.
Neurons a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Dendrite each neuron has a dendrite that is located on the cell body. They receive messages and usher impulses or feelings toward the cell body.
Axon Long "tail" of the cell body that passes messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Motor Neurons control muscles
Myelin Sheath a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
Without the Myelin sheath.... communication slows and leads to eventual loss of muscle control. Sclerosis is a disease in which the myelin sheath degenerates
A neuron fires an impulse when it receives signals from sense receptors stimulated by ______, ______, or ______, or pressure, heat, light, when it is stimulated by chemical messages from neighboring neurons
Action Potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Neurons, like batteries, generate electricity from ________. chemical events
Ions electrically charged ions
Every Psychology is______________ simultaneously biological.
A German physician named ____________ invented phrenology [insert definition] Franz Gall; the incorrect theory that stated that the bumps on the skull revealed our mental abilities and characteristics.
Biological Psychology a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. ( ex. neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, psychological psychologists, or biopsychologists.)
Neurons a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Dendrite each neuron has a dendrite that is located on the cell body. They receive messages and usher impulses or feelings toward the cell body.
Axon Long "tail" of the cell body that passes messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Motor Neurons control muscles
Myelin Sheath a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
Without the Myelin sheath.... communication slows and leads to eventual loss of muscle control. Sclerosis is a disease in which the myelin sheath degenerates
A neuron fires an impulse when it receives signals from sense receptors stimulated by ______, ______, or ______, or pressure, heat, light, when it is stimulated by chemical messages from neighboring neurons
Action Potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Neurons, like batteries, generate electricity from ________. chemical events
Ions electrically charged ions involved in the chemistry-to-electricity process
Resting potential When the fluid interior of a resting axon has an excess amount of negatively charged ions and the fluid outside the axon membrane has more positively charged ions.
When the neuron fires the impulse or the ________, the axon's ______ opens up to allow the positively charged ions into the axon's channel. This _____ that part of the axon, causing the axon's next channel to open. action potential;membrane
During the resting pause or the ________, the neuron pumps the positively charged ions outside. This is succeeded by another firing of an impulse. refractory period
threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Combined inhibitory and excitatory signals create an action potential
Excitatory - Inhibitory = exceeds a minimum intensity called the threshold
How the message is brought down the axon combined inhibitory and excitatory signals create action potential which is sent down the axon into branches where neurotransmitters bring them to muscles and glands.
Increasing the stimulus above the threshold ______ increase the action potential's intensity Will not
The strength of the stimulus _______ affect the action potential's speed. does not
A strong stimulus can trigger_________ and to ___________. more neurons to fire, and to fire more often.
The direction of the neural impulse is __________. toward the axon terminals.
The signals the neurons receive are _________ or ___________. excitatory; inhibitory
Excitatory signals somewhat like pushing a neurons accelerator
Inhibitory signals like pushing a neurons brakes
threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Combined inhibitory and excitatory signals create an action potential
Excitatory - Inhibitory = exceeds a minimum intensity called the threshold
How the message is brought down the axon combined inhibitory and excitatory signals create action potential which is sent down the axon into branches where neurotransmitters bring them to muscles and glands.
Increasing the stimulus above the threshold ______ increase the action potential's intensity Will not
The strength of the stimulus _______ affect the action potential's speed. does not
A strong stimulus can trigger_________ and to ___________. more neurons to fire, and to fire more often.
The direction of the neural impulse is __________. toward the axon terminals.
Synapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross the synapes between neurons, When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters go across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, influencing whether that neuron will make a neural impules
1) How do messages cross the tiny synaptic gap? 1) when action potential is released within the axon, it is brought to the terminal branches located at the end of the neuron which triggers chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. When there are too many neurotransmitters they are released from th
______________ influence our motions and our emotions. Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine Enables muscle action, learning and memory. ACh is the messenger at every junction between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. When ACh is released to our muscle cells, the muscle contracts.
_______ are released in response to pain and vigorous exercise. natural opiates/ endorphins
Endorphine "morphine within"- natual, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
Dopamine influence movement,learning, attention, and emotion
Excess dopamine receptor activity is linked to __________; the most common drug used to treat this is ________. schizophrenia; thorazine
Too much dopamine creates ____________________________. It is recommended to use _____________. decreased mobility of Parkinson's disease; L dopa (usually given because it can cross the blood-brain barrier)
Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Too little serotonin is linked to _______________. It is recommended to use ____, ____, _____, _______ or ___________. depression; prozac, celexax, paxil, Zoloft, or Lexapro
Norepinepherine Helps control alertness and arousal
too little Norepinepherine may make you in a depressed mood
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) a major inhibitory neurotransmitter
Undersupply of GABA linked to seizures, insomnia, and tremors
Nervous System the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system
The brain and the spinal chord form the ______________. Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
Nerves neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands and sense organs.
What three neurons does information travel through in the nervous system? sensory, interneurons, and motor neurons
sensory neurons neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
Motor Neurons neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
The body is most abundant in.... interneurons
What are the two components that make up the Peripheral Nervous System? somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
The Somatic system _________________________. controls the movements of our skeletal muscles.
The Autonomic system controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs; it usually operates on its own but can be voluntarily influenced.
The Autonomic system is a _______ system. It is made up of the ___________ system and the ____________system. dual; sympathetic nervous, parasympathetic nervous
Sympathetic the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
The Sympathetic system makes the body (functions) eye pupils dilate Accelerates heart beat Inhibits digestion Stimulates glucose release by liver Stimulates secretion of Endorphins and norepinepherine Stimulates ejaculation in males
Parasympathetic the division of the autonomic system that calms the body, conserving energy.
Parasympathetic system makes the body (functions) contracts pupils, slows heartbeat, stimulates digestion, stimulates gallbladder, contracts bladder, allows blood flow to sex organs
The CNS's ________________ is an information highway connecting the peripheral nervous system to the brain. spinal chord
___________ neural tracts send up sensory information, and ___________ tracts send back motor-control information. Ascending; descending
A simple reflex pathway is composed of ________ and ______. a single sensory neuron, a single motor neuron
If you spinal chord were severed from your brain you would not feel
Neural networks interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer stimulations of neural networks show analogous learning.
Created by: 1531900713