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Patient Care Test #2

Ch 13, 14, 15

constancy in the internal environment of the body, naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival homeostasis
cessation of spontaneous ventilation apnea
listening to sounds of the body, typically through the use of a stethoscope auscultation
absence of gas from part or the whole of the lungs as a result of failure of expansion or reabsorption of gas from the alveoli atelectasis
measurement of the degree of heat of the deep tissues of the human body body temperature
slowness of the heartbeat as evidenced by slowing of the pulse rate to less than 60 beats per min. bradycardia
abnormal slowness of breathing bradypnea
profuse sweating diaphoresis
pertaining to dilation, or a period of dilatation, of the heart, especially of the ventricles diastolic
difficult or labored breathing dyspnea
pertaining to or characterized by fever febrile
persistently high arterial blood pressure hypertension
abnormally high body temperature, especially that induced for therapeutic purposes hyperthermia
abnormally low blood pressure; seen in shock but not necessarily indicative of shock hypotension
low body temperature hypothermia
decreased oxygen tension (concentration) in the blood hypoxemia
the reduction of oxygen supply to the tissue hypoxia
insertion of a tubular device into a canal, hollow organ, or cavity intubation
increased amounts of fluid within the pleural cavity, usually the result of inflammation pleural effusion
presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity pneumothorax
photoelectric device used for determining the oxygen saturation of the blood pulse oximeter
instrument for measuring blood pressure sphygmomanometer
pertaining to contraction, or a period of contraction, of the heart (myocardium), especially that of the ventricles systolic
rapidity of the heart action, usually defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per min. tachycardia
abnormal rapidity of breathing tachypnea
mechanical movement of air into and out of the lungs ventilation
The primary mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are: * heartbeat * blood pressure * body temperature * respiratory rate * electrolyte balance
primary mechanisms that adapt to responses, inside or outside the body, to maintain homeostasis vital signs
The 4 vital signs are: * body temperature * pulse rate * blood pressure * respiratory rate
assessment of the patient's mental alertness that is often reported along with the vital signs sensorium
What is the normal mean body temperature? 98.6 F
the term used to describe the body's maintenance of heat production and heat loss thermoregulation
5 routes that are commonly used to measure body temperature: * oral * axillary * tympanic * temporal * rectal
the most common method of determining the body temperature of an adult or a cooperative child oral
temperatures obtained by placing a thermometer under a patient's tongue oral
temperatures obtained by placing the thermometer high between the upper arm and the torso axillary temperature
pulse obtained by listening to the chest with a stethoscope and counting each heartbeat apical pulse
plays an important role in regulating heat loss and can initiate peripheral vasodilation and sweating to dissipate body heat hypothalamus
Oral temperatures in healthy adults and children are within the narrow range of ______ to ______ degrees F 97.7 to 99.5 F or 36.5 to 37.5 C
Axillary temperatures register slightly ________ than oral readings lower
Rectal and Temporal temperatures register approximately 1 degree F ________ than oral readings higher
When the oral temperature is higher than _______ , a fever exists 99.5 degrees F
When the patient's temperature falls below the normal range, ________ is said to be present hypothermia
Respiratory rate are measured as the number of breaths per minute; normal range at rest is ____ to ____ breaths per minute 12 to 20
Children under the age of 10 years have slightly ________ respiratory rates increased
the average respiratory rate for children under the age of 10 years is: 20 to 30 breaths per minute
the average respiratory rate for newborns is: 30 to 60 breaths per minute
the term used to describe respiratory rate greater than 20 breaths per minute in the case of an adult patient tachypnea
True or False: Under normal conditions, the pulse can be palpated at superficially located arteries. True
3 common sites used for measuring pulse rate are: * Radial artery * Brachial artery * Carotid artery
List 7 places on the body where pulse can be assessed: * Carotid artery * Brachial artery * Radial artery * Femoral artery * Popliteal * Posterior tibial * Pedal
Resting pulse rate in the normal adult very from: 60 to 100 beats per min.
A normal pulse range for children under the age of 10 yrs is between: 70 to 120 beats per min.
What continually monitors the patient's heart rate and rhythm? electrocardiogram
a catheter that is inserted into an artery and is connected to a pressure transducer that is attached to a monitor arterial line
a noninvasive device used to provide ongoing assessment of the hemoglobin oxygen saturation of arterial blood and the patient's pulse rate pulse oximeter
What are normal pulse oximeter values for a healthy person? between 95% and 100%
Blood pressure is a measure of the ________ exerted by blood on the arterial walls during contraction and relaxation of the heart force
the constant pressure that is exerted on the arterial vessels by the blood when the heart is relaxed diastolic pressure
The peak pressure present during contraction of the heart is known as the: systolic pressure
Normal blood pressure in the healthy adult includes a systolic pressure of less than ______ mm/Hg and a diastolic pressure of less than ______ mm/Hg 120 systolic and 80 diastolic
Persistent elevation of blood pressure above 140/90 mm Hg is known as: hypertension
Hypertension is persistent elevation of blood pressure above: 140/90 mm Hg
Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure and may be identified by a blood pressure of less than: 95/60 mm Hg
a method of delivering oxygen that is well tolerated by the patient because talking, eating, and sleeping are not hindered nasal cannula
List 5 different kinds of masks used for oxygen therapy: * Simple * Aerosol * Air-entrainment * Nonrebreathing * Partial rebreathing
provide an effective way to deliver accurate, as well as high concentrations of oxygen masks
This type of low flow oxygen mask covers the patient's nose and mouth. It requires oxygen flow rates greater than 6 LPM to prevent an accumulation of carbon dioxide, and delivers 35% to 60% oxygen. simple oxygen mask
This type of mask can deliver a higher percentage of oxygen, prevent exhaled air from being rebreathed and ensure that only oxygen from the device is inhaled. Nonrebreathing mask
This type of mask is similar to a nonrebreathing mask, but it does not contain the valve. Partial rebreathing mask
What percentage of oxygen should a nonrebreathing mask provide? 100%
This type of mask is commonly used when both high oxygen concentrations and humidity are needed. Aerosol mask
This type of mask provides consistent concentrations of oxygen. Air-entrainment mask
List 2 methods of oxygen delivery that are used on pediatric patients: * Oxyhoods * Oxygen tents
These types of tubes are most commonly called chest tubes and are used to drain the intrapleural space and the mediastinum. Thoracostomy tubes
Negative intrapleural pressure can be caused by: * Pneumothorax * Hemothorax * Pleural effusion * Empyema
In the case of ________ and _______, fluids flow with gravity and tend to accumulate near the lung base. Hemothorax and pleural effusion
In the case of ________, thoracostomy placement is required at a higher insertion site in the apical region to drain out air. Pneumothorax
What does CV stand for? Central Venous
These are catheters that are inserted into a large vein to administer chemotherapeutic drugs, parenteral nutrition, manage fluid volume, serve as a conduit for blood analysis and transfusion, and monitor cardiac pressure. CV lines
Which vein is the most common insertion site for central venous catheters? subclavian
These type of tubes are used to manage a variety of respiratory complications and most often inserted via the mouth or nose, but in certain cases, the use of a tracheostomy is necessary. Endotracheal tubes
a gas-producing microorganism empyema
Pulmonary arterial (PA) lines are commonly called: Swan-Ganz catheters
specialized, single, or multilumen CV lines that incoporate a small electrode at the distal end used to monitor pulmonary arterial pressures Swan-Ganz catheters
A high-flow device that delivers consistent concentrations of oxygen Air-entrainment mask
List 5 low-flow devices that can deliver oxygen therapy: * Nasal cannulas * Simple masks * Aerosol masks * Nonrebreathing masks * Partial Rebreathing masks
Created by: kkant