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Topographic Anatomy & Joints

What are Fibrous Joints? They have no joint cavity, united by various fibrous & connective tissues or ligaments, and are the strongest joints in the body because they are virtually immovable.
What are the 3 types of Fibrous Joints? 1. Syndesmosis 2. Suture 3. Gomphosis
What is Syndesmosis joint? Immovable or slightly movable joint united by sheets of fibrous tissue.
What is an example of a Syndesmosis Joint? Distal Tibiofibular joint.
What is a Suture Joint? Immovable joint occurring only in the skull.
What is an example of a Suture Joint? Sutures in the skull.
What is a Gomphosis Joint? Immovable joint occuring only in roots of the teeth.
What is an example of Gomphosis Joint? A conical process is inserted into a socket.
What are Cartilaginous Joints? They have no joint cavity, are virtually immovable, hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage unite these joints.
What are the 2 types of Cartilaginous Joints? 1. Symphysis 2. Synchondrosis
What are Symphysis Joints? Slightly movable bones are separated by a pad of fibrocartilage- designed for strength and shock absorbency.
What is an example of a Symphysis Joint? Pubic Symohysis & Vertebrae Joints.
What are Synchondrosis Joint? Immovable-rigid cartilage unite the bones.
What is an example of a Synchondrosis Joint? Epiphyseal plate of long bones.
What are Synovial Joints? Permit wide range of motion and are all freely movable, some of these joints contain a pad of fibrocartilage called meniscus (which act as shock absorbers)and some contain bursae (fluid filled sacs the help rduce friction).
What are the 6 types of Synovial Joints? Gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoid, saddle, and ball and socket.
What is a Gliding Joint? Permits a gliding movement only- articular surfaces are flat(or slightly concave)and the other is convex.
What are some examples of a Gliding Joint? Intercarpal(wrist) and intertarsal(foot) joints.
What is a Hinge Joint? Permits only flexion/extension- similar to a door hinge.
What are some examples of a Hinge Joint? Elbow, knee, and ankle.
What is a Pivot Joint? Allows for rotation around a single axis- a rounded surface of one bone articulates with a ring of another bone.
What are some examples of a Pivot Joint? Atlas(C1) and Axis(C2) of the C-spine.
What is an Ellipsoid Joint? Permits movement in two directions at right angles to each other.
What is an example of a Ellipsoid Joint? Radiocarpal joint of wrist.
What is a Saddle Joint? Named because the articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped and the surface of the other is shaped like a rider sitting in a saddle- only one saddle joint in the body.
What is an example of Saddle Joint? 1st carpometacarpal joint of the hand.
What is a Ball and Socket Joint? Ball shaped head fits into a concave socket- provides wide range of motion.
What are some examples of a Ball and Socket Joint? Hip and shoulder.
What are the 4 Body Habitus and percent? Sthenic- 50% Asthenic- 10% Hyposthenic- 35% Hypersthenic- 5%
What are the organ placements in Sthenic? Heart: moderately transverse Lungs: moderately length Diaphragm: moderately high Stomach: high, upper left Colon:spread evenly, slight dip in transverse colon Gallbladder: centered on right side, upper abdomen
What are the characteristics in Sthenic? Build: moderately heavy Abdomen: moderately long Thorax: moderately short,broad, and deep Pelvis: relatively small
What are the organ placements in Asthenic? Heart: nearly vertical and at the midline Lungs: long, apices above clavicles, may be broader above base Diaphragm: low Stomach: low and medial, in the pelvis when standing Colon: low, folds on itself Gallbladder: low and nearer the midline
What are the characteristics in Asthenic? Build: frail Abdomen: short Thorax: long, shallow Pelvis: wide
What are the organ placements in Hypersthenic? Heart: axis nearly transverse Lungs: short, apices at or near clavicles Diaphragm: high Stomach: high, transverse, and in the middle Colon: around periphery of abdomen Gallbladder: high, outside, lies more parallel
What are the characteristics in Hypersthenic? Build: massive Abdomen: long Thorax: short, broad, deep Pelvis: narrow
C1 Mastoid Tip
C2, C3 Gonion
C3, C4 Hyoid Bone
C5 Thyroid Cartilage
C7, T1 Vertebra Prominens
T1 Approximately 2 inches above Jugular Notch
T2, T3 Jugular Notch
T4, T5 Sternal Angle
T7 Inferior Angles of Scapulae
T9, T10 Xiphoid Process
L2, L3 Inferior Costal Margin
L4, L5 Superior Aspect of Iliac Crest
S1, S2 Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS)
Coccyx Pubic Symphysis and Greater Trochanters
Created by: elkins.brett