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PTAdynamo

Nervous system

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 parts of the nervous system? 1.Central Nervous System-CNS 2.Peripheral Nervous System-PNS 3.Autonomic Nervous System-ANS
The brain and spinal cord makes up what system? Centeral Nervous System - CNS
The peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is made up of 3 catagories? Cranial nerve(12), Spinal Nerves(31), and Plexus fromations(7)
The hypothalamus is the boss of what systems? Autonomic Nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic)
The basic structural and fuctional unit to the central nervous system is? Neuron
A neuron is made of 3 parts? 1.Cell body or soma 2.Dendrite 3.Axon
The cell body contains a what? Nucleaus or cytoplasm
The cell body needs lots of O2 and glucose without it, it will? It will not survive and cannot be replaced once they are injured or necroitic
Dendrites are branchs of a tree and there function is? Receive impulses from other neurons and bring them TO the cell body
Axon has a long tail from the cell body, where does the info go? Carries impulses AWAY from the cell body
What is a Axon Hillock? Cone shped region of the cell body that the axon arises from
What is a Axon Cylinder? Inner core of the axon
Myelin Sheath is what? Lipoprotein substance that covers most axon. You are not born with it.
Neurilemma Sheath? Transparent covering around myelin. It is a sinlge layer of cells
What types of Neurons are there? Motor and Sensory neurons
What do MOTOR neurons look like? Very long axon and multi-branched dendrites
Where is a motor neuron located? The cell body located at the anterior horn of the spinal cord
Where does a motor neuron conduct impulses from? From the CNS to muscle and glands(efferent)
Sensory neurons start where? Sensory dendrites arise in skin travel UP to the cell body
The cell body of a sensory neuron is located where? Dorsal Root Ganglion/DRG of the spinal cord(afferent)
Sensory neruons axons travel where in the spinal cord? Posterior root of spinal cord to the post central gyrus
The definition of a synapse is? The electronic connection between two or more neurons
What is a Pre-synaptic Neuron? Senders of information, neuron that conducts an impulse TOWARD the synapse
What is a Post-synaptic Neuron? Receivers of information, neuron that conducts an impluse AWAY from the synapse
What does a synaptic cleft join? The narrow cleft joins the plasma membranes of the two communicating neurons
What is a synaptic vesicles? Membrane bound sacs in the pre-synaptic neuron
What are the synaptic vesciles filled with? Neurotransmitters
Where are neurotransmitters released from? The molecules are released across the synaptic cleft
What is the 1st process of a synapse? Impules travel along axon of pre-synaptic neuron
What is the 2nd process of a synapse? Signaling synaptic vesicles to migrate and fuse to pre-synaptic membrane
What is the 3rd process of a synapse? Vesicles release neurotransmiter molecules which diffuse across the cleft
What is the 4th process of a synapse? Molecules bind to post synaptic membrane
What is the 5th process of a synapse? Electic charge on post-synaptic membrane is altered generating an nn impluse in neuron
The Central Nervous system consists of 2 parts? Brain and spinal cord
The brain is divided into threee parts? Cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum
The cerebrum has 2 cerebral hemispheres and the is called? Telencephalon
The function of the cerebrum is? Highest mental function. Intellectual and emotional processing
The cell bodies(cortex) of the cerebrum consist where? Outer layer which is gray matter
Myelinated axons are located where? Inner layer which is the white matter
What are the two layers of the cerebrum? Outer,gray matter which consist of cell bodies and the inner, white matter consist of myelinated axons
The lobes of the brain are? Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
Frontal lobe is located anterior to central sulcus and what is its function? Voluntary movement, expressive speech, personality characteristics
Parietal lobe is located 2 lateral halves posterior to central sulcus and what is its function? Sensation, gross (touch pressure)and fine (tecture, weight, size)
Temporal lobe is located posterior to lateral fissure and what is its function? Hearing behavior, language reception, understanding and interpeting smell
Occipital lobe is located where? Posterior to parietal and superior to cerebellum
What is the function of the Occiptal lobe? Vision, recognition of size, shape,color, people
The corpus collosum is located? The roof of lateral ventricle
The Basal Ganglia is in charge of what? Learned fucntions, starting and stopping of voluntary movement that is executed by the cerebrum. Regulates intensity and force of movements
The Basal Ganglia arches over what? Thalamus deep in hemisphere
What 3 nuclei does the Basal Ganglia consist of ? Caudate, lenitform, and the amygdaloid nucleus
Internal Capsule in located where? Deep in the cerebral white matter
The Interal Capsule fibers from a band where? Between thalamus and basial ganglia
What allows sensory fibers to reach parietal area and motor tracts to travel to the brainstem and spinal cord? Internal capsule
One of the main functions of the internal capsule is? Is that it is the main passageway for ascending and descending nerve tracts
The Diencephalon is made up of two parts? Thalamus and Hypothalamus
The Thalamus is located where? Superior to brainstem, inferior to lateral ventricle
What contains 12 nuclei that direct sensory axons to the post central gyrus? Thalamus
Do all sensory neurons synapse on at least one of the 12 nuclei of the Thalamus? True
What makes up 80% of the diencephalon? Thalamus
Where is the Hypothalamus located? Inferior to thalamus and superior to midbrain
What are the bodies of the Hypothalamus? Mammialary bodies, anterior and Pineal body on posterior surface
What are some functions of the Hypothalamus? Intergration center of ANS, Visceral(organs) control center, Limbic(emotions) system, regulates body temp, timing sleep/wake cycles, controls glands/endocrine system
What regulates body temp and timing of sleep cycles? Hypothalamus
Do we have control over the hypothalamus functions? No
The brainstem consist of what 3 parts? Midbrain, pons ans medulla
The midbrain conduction paythway between higher and lower cneters of the brain and is in charge of what reflexes? Visual and auditory reflexes part of cranial nn III, IV
Pons relays info from cerebru to cerebellum and is charge of what? Respiration rate and depth part of cranial nn V, VI
What function does medulla regulate? Contains viceral nuclei which regulate ANS functions
The pathway between the brain centers and spinal cord is located where? Medulla, which houses Cranial nn VII, XII
What is the reticular formation closely related to? ANS
The brainstem function has 2 pathways fo the reticular formation? Descending and Ascending
(Reticular Formation)Desending pathways are located where? Deep in the brainstem
(Reticular Formation)Function of descending pathway is what? Recievies stimiuli from: 1.Hypothalamus 2.Basal Ganglia 3.Vestibular System
(Reticular Formation)What tract send sencory axons that end here and stimulus that goes to thalamus which sends singles to post central gyru? Ascending pathways of the brainstem, which is part of the reticular fromation
What are the functions of ascending pathways? Are degress of conscious alertness/sleep cycles
If you have a decresed brainstem what happens in the ascending pathway? Decreased info=more sleep
What are the 3 causes of coma? Structual, toxic, and metabolic
What is metabolic coma? Severe acidosis or alkalosis, hpoglycemia, and diabetic coma
What causes structural coma? Trama, damage to brain tissue causing swelling, shutting down higher centers
What is located inferior to occipital lobe? Cerebellum
The control center is the cerebellum and what are the three main functions? Equilibrium, voluntary muscle activity and coordination, and muscle tone
What motor(desending,efferent) is located in the cerebellum? Vestibulospinal which does not cross the spinal cord and controls motor reponses for equillibrium and proprioception. Also assoc. with basil ganglia
Equilibrium is the function of what part of the brain? Cerebellum
How is voluntary muscle activity information sent in the brain? Information on current movents of limbs, neck and truck which travel from Proprioceptors in mm joints and tendons up spinal cro to cerebellar cortex
Can movement be initaited by the cerebellum? No, therefore if a person has a cerebellar injury there is no parallysis.
If a person is clumsy, tremulous and uncoordinated or slow what part of the brain is responsible for this? The cerebellum is control center for amount of tone with the mm
Hypotonic(low), normal, or hpertonic(high) tone and the amount we use is controlled by what part of the brain? Cerebellum
What is the main pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts? Spinal Cord which connects the peripheral nn and spinal nn with the brain
Where do the nn tracts travel in the spinal cord? White matter
What is primitive and complex, somatic and visceral? Major reflex center of the spinal cord
What connects the PNS to CNS? Peripheral nn are connected to the spinal cord by 31 pairs of spinal nerves
What encases the spinal cord and where does the cord run in? Encased by spinal vertebrae and the cord runs in the vertebral canal from the foramen magnum to the end of the conus medullaris (L1,2)
Name the groupings of Spinal Nerves and the amount of each? 8 cervical-exit above vertebrae, 12 thoracic-exit below, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 cocxygel
Where is the conus medullaris located? Inferior end of spinal cord. It tapers into a cone shape at L1-L2 or L3-L4
What is considered the "Horses Tail"? Cauda Equina, the spinal nerve root for L2-L5
What thread like non neural filament runs from concus medullaris to coccyx? Filum Terminale which helps anchor spinal cord to coxageal ligament
Anterior horn cibtaubs what? Cell bodies fo motor neurons
What does the anterior horn transmit? Motor impulses, with contains cell bodies of motor neurons
Posterior horn transmits what? Sensory impulses receives info from DRG and carries info up to brain
Lateral horn is similar to what other horn? Anterior, additional motor cell bodies, found in cervial and superior lumbar
What is the process of a motor repsonce? Starts in the pre-central gyrus travel down the spinal cord out the ascending, anterior horn to the
What is the main pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts? Spinal Cord which connects the peripheral nn and spinal nn with the brain
Where do the nn tracts travel in the spinal cord? White matter
What is primitive and complex, somatic and visceral? Major reflex center of the spinal cord
What connects the PNS to CNS? Peripheral nn are connected to the spinal cord by 31 pairs of spinal nerves
What encases the spinal cord and where does the cord run in? Encased by spinal vertebrae and the cord runs in the vertebral canal from the foramen magnum to the end of the conus medullaris (L1,2)
Name the groupings of Spinal Nerves and the amount of each? 8 cervical-exit above vertebrae, 12 thoracic-exit below, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 cocxygel
Where is the conus medullaris located? Inferior end of spinal cord. It tapers into a cone shape at L1-L2 or L3-L4
What is considered the "Horses Tail"? Cauda Equina, the spinal nerve root for L2-L5
What thread like non neural filament runs from concus medullaris to coccyx? Filum Terminale which helps anchor spinal cord to coxageal ligament
Anterior horn cibtaubs what? Cell bodies fo motor neurons
What does the anterior horn transmit? Motor impulses, with contains cell bodies of motor neurons
Posterior horn transmits what? Sensory impulses receives info from DRG and carries info up to brain
Lateral horn is similar to what other horn? Anterior, additional motor cell bodies, found in cervial and superior lumbar
What is the process of a motor responce? Starts in the pre-central gyrus travel down the spinal cord out the ascending, anterior horn to the anterior root spinal nn peripheral nn through motor neuron to the mm
What is the process of a sensory responce? Have stimulus, pinch, impulses to CNS in through peripheral nn spinal nn DRG poterior dorsel root synapse up to the brain thalamus post central gyrus
Anterior longitudinal ligament is located where and prevents what movement? Front of vertebral bodies and prevent hyperextension
Posterior longitudinal ligament is located where and prevents what movement? Back of vertebral bodies and prevents forward flexion
Ligamentum Nuchae does what? Helps hold the head up and support the skull C1 to C7
What are the motor tracts? Lateral Corticospinal, Ventral Coricospinal, Vestibulospinal, and Rubrospinal
Where do motor tracts travel? White mater
What are the sensory tracts? Fasiculus Gracilis, Fasiculus Cuneatus, Dorsal Spinocrebellar, Lateral Spinothalamic, and Ventral Spinothalamic
Where do sensory tracts travel? White mater up spinal cord thalamus post central gyrus
In the motor tracts what to work together like best friends? Lateral Corticospinal and Rubrospinal
Nerve cell bodies of upper motor neurons originate where? CNS - pre central gyrus
The upper motor neurons cen their axons into the spinal cord whre the make contact with what? Anterior horn of the spinal cord
After the upper motor neuron makes contact with the anterior horn it syapse where? The interneuron above the anterior horn between the brain and spina cord
What are some ex. of UMN disease? MS, Parkinsons, Huntingtons, CP, Stroke
UMN damage may result in what? Spactic paralysis, ^hypersensitive reflexes, positive Babinski sign, fasiculation NOT present
Lower motor neuron innervate what? Skeletal mm of the body and motor nn cells of the brainstem which innervate mm supplied by the cranial nn
Where does a Lower motor neuron synapse? Occurs below the anterior horn, between the anterior horn and the periphery
What are some ex of LMN damage? Polio, MD
LMN damage may result in what? Flaccid paralysis, severe mm atrophy, decreased hyposenitive reflexes,neg Babinski sign, Fasiculations ARE present
Peripheral Nervous System consist of what? 12 cranial nerves, 31 spinal nerves, cervical brachial and lumbo sacral plexus
What are the sensory nerves of the cranial nn? I Olfactory, II optic and VIII vestibulocochlear
IV Trochlear, III oculomotor, VI abducens, accessory and hypoglossal are all what? Motor Cranial nerves
What are the cranial nn that have both motor and sensory? V Trigeminal, VII facial, IX glossopharyngeal,X vagus
Optic nn II helps sensory of what? Vision
Trigeminal nn V both sensory and motor does what? teeth, mm mastication
Vagus nn X does what? Heart lungs brachi gastroinstinal and sensory with external ear
Are posterior primary ramus innervated with extremities and trunk? No only the anterior primary ramus which is the actual spinal nn
Where do the posterior primary ramus innervate? They branch that innervates deep mm in the back and the skin covering these mm
Where does the anterior primary ramus innervate? All mm and skin of extremities and trunk not innervated by posterior primary ramus
What is a dermatome? ares of skin supplied with sensory fibers of the spinal nn.
If sensation is lost in one section of the dermatome is all sensation lost to that area? No, fibers overlap so sensation is not completely lost unless 2 or more spinal nn are injured
Cervical plexus are composed of what nn? C1 thru C4 this is where the phrenic nn innervates the diaphrgm at C4
What are the termainal ends of the 5 large nn of the brachial plexus? 1.Musculocutaneous 2.Axillary 3.Radial 4.Median 5.Ulnar (MARMU)
Lumbrosacral plexus terminal ends are where? superior gluteal, inferior gulteal, femoral nn and obturator
Sciatic nn consists of what? The tibial and common peroneal encased in same sheath
What systems stimulates and controls structures at an unconscious level? Autonomic Nervous System
ANS stimulates what mm? Cardiac mm and smooth mm and most glands
Does the ANS affect both afferent and efferent? Yes
What 2 systems are involved with ANS? Sympathetic and parasympathetic
Fight and Flight is physical and psych stress of system? Sympathetic
What does the sympathetic produce? Epinephrine
Does the sympathetic increase or decrease symtoms of HR CO BP blood flow pupils dialate and bronchioles open? Increase
How does the sympathetic and parasympathetic work? They work like a scale or ratition to each other. If one is high the other is low
What systom involes relaxing and resting - digestion? Parasympathetic
Where is Acetylcholine produced? Parasympthetic
When the parasympathetic is active in HR CO BP BF respiratory rate does what? Decreases but the digestion increases
Part of the ANS involes what relexes? Viceral and Somatic
Visceral reflexes involve what? Organs and glands ex vomiting, sneezing, coughing
Somatic reflexes involve what? Muscular response
Monosynaptic Relflex involves what neurons and does what kind of stretch? Uses both 1 sensory and 1 motor neuron which used for DTR stretch relfex
What is it called when one or more motor neuron are involved in reflex pathway? Polysynaptic reflex (flexor withdrawl, crossed extension)
What is a sensory receptor? Specialized to respond to changes in their environment, enviroment changes called stimuli
What are the 5 sensory receptors? Mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nocioceptors, electromagnetic receptors and chemoreceptors
What does helps muscle/tendon from being injured? Sensory receptors
What is located in parallel within the muscle fibers? Muscle spindle
When a mm is stimulated what does it do? MM to stretch, mm respond to tension within the mm or mm stretch
Where is the Golgi Tendon Organ located? In the tendon
When the GTO is stimulated it inhibits mm and causes what to fire? The antagonist
Created by: demiller243