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Anatomy of the Brain

Meninges protect the brain and spinal cord and what else? Enclose and protects blood vessels that supply the CNS and contains the CSF.
What are the layers of the meninges? Dura Mater, Arachonoid, and Pia Mater
What are the two sheets of the Dura Mater? Outer periosteal and Inner meningeal.
What are the parts of the Dura Mater? Falx Cerebri, Falx Cerebelli, and Tentorium Cerebelli
What does the Falx cerebri attach to? Attachs to the crista galli of the ethmoid bone.
What part of the dura mater that lies between the right and left lobes of the creebellum? Falx Cerebelli
What part of the dura mater that dips down into and runs along the entire lenght of the median longitudinal fissure? Falx Cerebri
The tentorium cerebelli sits where? The space between the occipital lobe and the cerebellum
The _________________ ______________ are the spider web-like filaments that extend down from the middle meningeal layer to the pia mater. Arachnoid Trabeculations
What if the CSF absorded by in that push through the duramater and filter CSF out to the superior sagittal sinus and venous system? Arachnoid villi
What four things does the pia mater hold together? Brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves and cauda equina.
The filum terminale extends down fromthe tip of the conus medullaris to what ligament with helps to anchor the spinal cord within the spinal canal? Coccyxgeal ligament
What are the lateral extension of pia mater that attach to the archnoid and dura mater to stablilize the spinal cord laterally? Dentate Ligaments
Name 3 things that describe a Epidural hematoma? Cause: trama to head, Symtoms: within hours, and need surgery to stop brain injury.
Name 3 things that describe a Subdural hematoma? Cause: blow to head or fall, symtoms: show up in weeks later, and misdiagnosed for a CVA because they usally show up in the elderly that have fragile vessels.
Where is the subarachnoid space located and what is it filled with? Located in large space sperating the arachnoid and pia layer and is filled with CSF
How is CSF made? In the ventricles (95% formed in lateral ventricles)and choroid plexus
What is the internal system? Ventricles in the brain
What is the external system? Subarchnoid space
Where is old CSF absorbed by? Thru the arachnoid villi into the superior sagittal sinus
How much CSF is produced a day? 500ml
What are the functions of CSF? 1. Maintain constant external enviro. for neurons and glia 2.Provides mechanical cushion that portects the brain and spinal cord 3. Allows brain to float-buoyancy reduces weight from 1400 to 50 grams
What is the Ventricalar system? Internal system of CSF which have four chambers
What are the 3 horns of the lateral ventricles? Anterior horn-frontal lobes, Posterior horn-occipital lobe, and Inferior horn-temporal lobe.
95% if of CSF is made where? Lateral Ventricle
Where does the CSF pass thru to the third ventricle? Interventricular Foramen
The 3rd ventricle is located between the walls of the right and left diencephalon. Which consists of what in the center of the brain. Thalams and Hypothalamus
CSF leaves the 3rd ventricle to the 4th ventricle through what? Cerebral aqueduct loacted in the mid brain
Where is the 4th ventricle located? In the brainstem at the back of the pons and the medulla
After the fluid leaves the 4th ventricle where does it travel to? It travels downward in the central canal of the spinal cord
It exits thru what openings in the 4th ventricle? Exits from 3 small openings called APERATURES and then fills the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord
Can CSF fluid go any which way through the aperatures? No they are one way
What is Hydocephalus? 1.over secretion of choroid plexus 2.impaired absortion by arachnoid villi, caused by ^venous pressure 3.obstruct pathway, tumor, congenital, scaring
Spinal tap is done where on the spine? L3 L4 or L4, L5 from subarachnoid space
Why is a spinal tap used? Diagnose disorders and administer drugs. Also looks at intracranial pressue levels of sugar, and CI
Intracranial pressure is caused by? Head trama, swelling, CVA, Tumors
Symtoms of Intracranial pressure? Headache, dizziness, behavior changes
Intracranial pressure is diagnosed by doing what? Looking into the eye for papilledema from Optic disc of the retina. swelling puts pressure on the optic nerves
The brain has a barrier made up of what? Walls of cappilaries in the brain that are different than those of the rest of the body
The barrier is least permeable prevents blood borne toxins and bacteria from entering, but nutrients and ions nedded by neurons are? Oxygen, but also allows harmful molecules such as nicotine, ETOH and drugs in
What 2 main arteries supply the brain? Vertebral-foramen magnum and Internal carotid-sella tursica
(Pathway of the carotid)The common carotid bifucates into what? Internal and External carotid
(Pathway of the carotid)Internal carotid enters skull and bifurcates? Anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries
(Pathway of the carotid)Anterior communicating joins what? Anterior cerebral arteries join to the right and left side of the blood supply
(Pathway of Vertebral arteries)2 vertebral arteries travel up through where and enter the skull thru the froamen magnum? Transverse process of the cervical vertebrae
(Pathway of the carotid)Vertebral arteries merge into what? The Basilar artery
(Pathway of the carotid)Basilar arter splits into? Right and left posterior cerebral ateries
(Pathway of the carotid)Posterior communicating connests what? Blood flow to the posterior to the anterior
What is the circle of Willis? Is fromed by the communicating arteries so that the perfusion of blood to the brain can still be achieved even if one of the major arteries is damaged
(Arteries that supply the brain)Anterior cerebral is located where? Passes forward and the up and into the median longitudinal fissure, back to the parietoccipital fissure.
(Arteries that supply the brain)Anterior cerebral supplies? The medial surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres and brain
(Arteries that supply the brain)Middle cerebral is located where? Passes between the lateral fiffure between the temporal and frontal lobes
(Arteries that supply the brain)Where is the most common site for a CVA? Middle Cerebral Artery
(Arteries that supply the brain)Middle cerebral supplies what part of the brain? Supplies most of the lateral surface of teh cerebral hemispheres
(Arteries that supply the brain)Posterior cerebral is located? Passes between the occiptal lobe and the cerebellum
(Arteries that supply the brain)Posterior cerebral function ? Supplies occiptal lobe and posterior portion of th e temporal lobe
(Arteries that supply the brain)Basilar artery is where? Runs along the inferior surface fo the brainstem
(Arteries that supply the brain)Basilar supplies what? The pons, medulla and parts of the cerebellum
Created by: demiller243
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