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SPED 326, Chapter 6

Special Ed, Formative Assessment

Difficulty producing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality or fluency of speech. (Ex: Hoarse voice) pg.154 Speech Disorder
Difficulty receiving, understanding, or formulating ideas and information. pg. 154 Language Disorder
Characterized by difficulty receiving or understanding information. pg. 154 Receptive Language Disorder
Characterized by difficulty formulating ideas and information. pg. 155 Expressive Language Disorder
A condition in which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lip. pg. 155 Cleft plate/lip
A language variation that a group of individuals uses and that reflects shared regional, social, or cultural/ethnic factors. pg. 155 Dialect
Oral expression of language. pg. 156 Speech
A structured, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating. pg. 157 Language
The use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words. pg. 157 Phonology
Individual speech sounds and how they are produced, depending on their placement in a syllable or word. pg. 499 Phonemes
The system that governs the structure of words. pg. 157 Morphology
The smallest meaningful unit of speech. pg. 157 Morpheme
Provides rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences. pg. 157 Syntax
Refers to the meaning of what is expressed. pg. 157 Semantics
Refers to the use of communication in contexts. pg. 157 Pragmatics
Emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interactions. pg. 158 Social Interaction Theories
One of the most frequent communication disorders in preschool and school-age children. Occurs when the child cannot correctly produce the various sounds and sound combinations of speech. pg. 159 Articulation Disorders
A speaker's production of individual or sequenced sounds. pg. 159 Articulation
Common, as when a child substitutes /d/ for the voiced /th/ ("doze" for "those"), /t/ for /k/ ("tat" for "cat"), or /w/ for /r/ ("wabbit" for "rabbit"). pg. 159 Substitutions
Occur when a child leaves a phoneme out of a word. pg. 159 Omissions
Occur when a students place a vowel between two consonants, converting "tree" into "tahree". pg. 159 Additions
Modifications of the production of a phoneme in a word; a listener gets the sense that the sound is being produced, but it seems distorted. pg. 159 Distortions
A motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech. pg. 160 Apraxia
Affected by the tension and size of vocal folds, the health of the larynx, and the location of the larynx. pg. 160 Pitch
The length of time any speech sound requires. pg. 160 Duration
Based on the perception of the listeners and is determined by the air pressure coming from the lungs through vocal folds. (loudness or softness) pg. 160 Intensity
The perceived quality of someone's voice, determined by the way in which the tone coming from the vocal folds is modified by the spaces of the throat, mouth and nose. pg. 160 Resonance
The type of resonance trait that allows air to pass through the nasal cavity on sounds other than /m/, /n/, and /ng/. pg. 160 Hypernasality
Resonance problem that causes an individual to appear as if they have a cold or are holding their noses when speaking, because air cannot pass through the nose and comes through the mouth instead. pg. 160 Hyponasality
Describes a language disorder with no identifiable cause in a person with apparently normal development in all other areas. pg. 500 Specific Language Impairment
Caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism of the person. pg. 162 Organic Disorder
No identifiable organic or neurological cause. pg. 162 Functional Disorder
Disorder that occurs before birth. pg. 162 Congenital Disorder
Disorder the occurs well after birth. pg. 162 Acquired Disorder
Examination of the appearance, strength, and range of motion of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth, and jaw, is also typically conducted. pg. 164 Oral Motor Exam
Uses two languages equally well. pg. 164 Bilingual
Uses two variations of language. pg. 164 Bidialectal
Focuses on augmented input of language. pg. 172 System for Augmenting Language (SAL)
Rate and rhythm of speaking. pg. 161 Fluency
Created by: pnaddison