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Pharmocology aspects of PT

Define Bioavailability The percentage of medication that reaches systemic circulation
Lists ways to absorb drug Oral, Sublingual, Inhalation, Intramuscular, Subcutaneus, Intravenous, Transdermal (topical)
Bio-factors that effect drug distribution within body Blood flow, plasma protein binding, Blood Brain Barrier, Fat/muscle/other sites accumulation
Define Elimination Predicted rate of clearance of drug from body; the volume of drug that is cleared of a drug per unit time
Define Half-life The amount of time it takes plasma concentration to drop by 50%
Define Agonists endogenous substances, such as neurotransmitters or hormones, that bind with appropriate receptors to produce some effect (Have affinity & efficacy for site)
Define Antagonists Substances or drugs that fit into and bind with receptor sites to block the receptor & allow it not to become active (Have affinity for site but No efficacy)
Side-effects of Aspirin Gastrointestinal upset, nausea, gastritis
Mechanism of Aspirin effects Inhibits COX-cyclooxygenase enzyme & thus inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
Mechanism of NSAID action Non-selective COX-cyclooxygenase inhibitor; inhibits COX1 and COX 2 enzymes
Side-effects of NSAID Fluid retention, edema, some GI irritation
Glucocorticosteroids Mechanism of action Inhibit several parts of the inflammatory process including capillary dilation, edema formation, migration of leukocytes & macrophages to affected area
Side-effects & Adverse Effects of Glucoccorticosteroids Adrenal insufficiency, Immunosuppression, depression, anxiety, euphoria, "mood swings", Cushingoid state, fluid retention, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, myopathy, GI disturbances
Give an example of Anti-Rheumatic Drugs Methotrexate, Embrel-(anti-cytokine)
What disease is TNF or Anti-human tumor necrosis factor alpha directly involved with? Rheumatoid Arthritis
Where does Diazepam act? Acts centrally in supraspinal centers & spinal interneurons
Where does Zanaflex act? Acts in spinal cord as adrenergic agent.
Where does Orphenadrine (Norflex) act? Acts at the level of brainstem or spinal cord
Where does Baclofen act? Acts to inhibit release of neurotransmitters in brain & spinal cord, especially substance P.
Where does Dantrolene (Dantrium) act? Acts locally on muscle fibers to block release of calcium
Name some Muscle Relaxers Diazepam, Zanaflex, Orphenadrine, Baclofen, Dantrium
Name some Opiod Narco Morphine, Codeine, Hydrocodone (Vicodin), Oxycodone (Percocet), Demerol, Dilaudid
Name some Non-opiod Narcotics Acetometaphine (Tylenol)
List the Types Anti-hypertensive Medications Diuretics, Beta-adrenergic Blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Apha-adrenergic Blockers
What is the ultimate (desired) result of taking a Diuretic? Decreased vascular resistance
What are the side-effects of Diuretic medication? Hyperglycemia (esp with Diabetes), Hypokalemia, Hyperuricemia (too much uric acid=gout), increase in LDL levels, Hypercalcemia
What are the side-effects with Loop Diuretics? Hypokalemia,Hypocalcemia, Hyperglycemia, Hyperuricemia
When should Beta-Blockers be avoided? With certain kinds of agina, all forms of COPD, & Diabetes Mellitus
A patient has taken three Nitroglycerin tablets without relief. The next step for the therapist is to... Immediately call EMS as the patient may be having a MI
Mechanism of ACE inhibitor action Inhibits conversion of angiotensin I & II thus inhibiting vascular smooth muscle
Which medication is usually the first step in managing Left ventricular failure? ACE Inhibitors
List examples of Anti-coagulants Warfarin, Coumadin, Heparin
Why should aspirin not be used after acute athletic injury or trauma? It prolongs clotting
Anti-coagulants are used to treat? DVT and acute MI
Anti-Cholinergic drugs are used to treat which cardiac problems? Heart Block & Bradycardia
Beta-Blockers are used to treat which problems? HTN & also allow for increased exercise tolerance
Calcium channel blockers are used to treat which problems? Atherosclerosis, Arrhythmias, Chest Pain
Digoxin is used to treat which problems? CHF & HTN
Nitroglycerin is used to treat? Angina
Diuretics are used to treat which problems? CHF & HTN
Side-effects of Digoxin include... Nausea, Vomiting, Pulse Irregularities, potential for toxicity
Side-effects of calcium-channel blockers include? Ischemic response due to reduced blood flow to heart muscle
Side-effects of Opiod Narcotics? Mental status changes, nausea & vomiting, postural hypotension
Common Medication types used to treat Hypertension. Diuretics, Beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers
Common Medication types used to treat Heart Failure. Ace-inhibitors, Digoxin, Vasodilators
Created by: zimrizzle
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