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Patient Care Test #1

Ch 1, 2, 4, 11, 12 & Modules 1, 2, 3 & 4

3 Qualities Important to Establishing an open dialogue: * Respect * Genuineness * Empathy
The patient interview is important because: It provides information that directs the radiologist's attention
Effective histories result when the following questioning techniques are used: * Open-ended questions * Facilitation to encourage elaboration * Silence * Probe to get additional detail * Reword to clarify * Summarize to verify accuracy
When interviewing a patient, it is helpful to assess their: * Age * Education level * Life experiences
Defining as exact and precise an area as possible for the patient's complaint; usually through gentle palpation or careful wording of questions Localization
Time element of the history, usually including the onset, duration, frequency, and course of the symptoms Chronology
2 Types of Data Collection: * Objective - perceptible to the senses; can be seen, heard or felt Ex: lab reports * Subjective - not perceptible to the senses; Ex: what the patient tells you and what you observe
Part of assessment that integrates all segments of critical thinking; demands recall Data analysis
The socially inherited characteristics of a group of people that are transmitted from one generation to the next Culture
Patient expectations of health care professionals: * Concerned * Clean * Well groomed * Professional * Deliver quality patient care
Plays a major role in assessing the patient and are a part of the radiographer's assessment and plan of care Culture & Ethnicity
The ability to achieve a positive diagnostic or treatment result in a timely, efficient manner while meeting the unique needs of the individual patient The hallmark of an excellent radiographer
4 Elements of Critical Thinking: * Analysis * Synthesis * Evaluation * Critique
determination of the cause and effect of a situation Analysis
combining multiple areas of knowledge to create a new understanding of the situation (drawing on experience) Synthesis
judgment or determination of quality Evaluation
a type of evaluation that provides feedback on the quality of work in the form of an opinion or review Critique
4 Modes of Thinking: * Recall * Habit * Inquiry * Creativity
creative action based on professional knowledge and experience involving sound judgment applied with high ethical standards and integrity Critical thinking
answering questions in a methodical manner to resolve a challenging situation Problem solving
Steps in Problem Solving & Critical Thinking: * Identify and/or clarify the problem * Undergo an objective examination of the problem * Consider and develop all viable solutions to the problem * Select the solution with the best outcome for the patient
the status of an organism functioning without any evidence of disease or disfigurement Health
What is the Health-Illness Continuum? All persons seek to maintain a high level of well-being. Unfortunately, a perfect state of health is rarely achieved; therefore, health is seen as on a continuum.
List Maslow's (7) Hierarchy of Needs: * Physiologic * Safety and Security * Love and Belonging * Self-esteem and esteem of others * Need to know and understand * Aesthetics * Self-actualization
List the 5 Stages of Death & Dying: * Denial and isolation * Anger * Bargaining * Depression * Acceptance
A legal document prepared by a living, competent adult to provide guidance to the health care team if the individual should become unable to make decisions regarding his or her medical care Advanced Directive
The ability and right of patients to make independent decisions regarding their medical care. Patient autonomy
Information available regarding a patient's condition; traditionally comprises data on localization, chronology, quality, severity, onset, aggrevating or alleviating factors, & associated manifestations Clinical History
Description of the character of the symptoms; Ex: the color, quantity, and consistency of blood or other body substances; size or number of lumps or lesions; frequency of urination or coughing; or character of pain Quality
7 Elements of the Clinical History: * Localization * Chronology * Quality * Severity * Onset * Aggravating or alleviating factors * Associated manifestations
The study of older adults Gerontology
List the 3 Classifications of Geriatric Patients: * young-old * old-old * oldest-old
List the chronologic and functional age of "young-old" patients. * 65 - 74 yrs * Healthy and active
List the chronologic and functional age of "old-old" patients. * 75 - 84 yrs * Transitional
List the chronologic and functional age of "oldest-old" patients. * 85 yrs and older * Frail and infirm
The cardinal rules when dealing with geriatric patients are: patience and respect
term used when patients are not told of their condition; many of these patients deduce that they are terminally ill but lack assistance in working through the various stages of acceptance closed awareness
when patients watch for clues to their condition but attempt to keep the health care team from knowing exactly how much they understand suspicious awareness
exists when patient, staff, and family all know but are pretending not to know in hopes of avoiding interpersonal conflicts mutual pretense
usually considered desirable because it permits everyone to work through to various stages that precede dying open awareness
What instills confidence and denotes competence? Professional Appearance
List 6 Patient Types: * Seriously ill * Visually impaired * Speech and hearing-impaired * Non-English-Speaking * Mentally impaired * Substance abusers
What age group is considered infant? Birth to 1 yr
What age group is considered toddler? 1 to 3 yrs
What age group is considered preschooler? 3 to 5 yrs
What age group is school-aged children? 5 to 10 yrs
What age group is considered adolescent? 10 to 25 yrs
What age group is considered young adult? 25 to 45 yrs
What age group is considered middle-age adult? 45 to 65 yrs
What age group is considered mature adult? 65 yrs and older
Objective evaluation and determination of the status of a patient Patient Assessment
Patient who comes to a health care facility for diagnosis or treatment but does not occupy a bed Outpatient
Someone who has been admitted to the hospital for diagnostic studies or treatment Inpatient
Typical Outpatient Characteristics: * Expect to be seen immediately on arriving to the department because they have a scheduled appointment * May expect priority treatment, however, a professional should provide the same care and attention to all patients regardless of status.
Methods of Effective Communication: * Speech and Grammar * Humor (use with caution) * Paralanguage * Body language * Touch
3 Ways Touch is Used: * Emotional Support * Emphasis or instruction * Palpation
List 3 Patient Needs: * Respect * Personal attention * Help in maintaining dignity
To become a successful communicator you must develop these skills: * Listening * Observing * Speaking * Writing
Any process by which a neutral atom gains or loses an electron, thus acquiring a net charge Ionization
Capacity to operate or work Energy
Energy transmitted by waves through space or through a medium Radiation
Electromagnetic radiation of short wavelength that is produced when electrons moving at high velocity are suddenly stopped X-ray
A form of electromagnetic energy that has the ability to ionize atoms Gamma radiation
Father of Western Medicine Hippocrates
Discovered x-rays in 1895 Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
A 13-yr project (completed in 2003) coordinated by the US Dept of Energy and the National Institutes of Health Human Genome Project (HGP)
3 Examples of Electromagnetic Energy: * Radio waves * Light * X-rays
Specialized contrast media procedure used to visualize the spinal cord Myelography
Specialized contrast media procedure used to visualize the joint spaces. Arthrography
ARRT American Registry of Radiologic Technologists
The term for radiologic examination of the blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium. Angiography
A term that includes all the health-related disciplines with the exception of nursing and the MODVOPP careers. Allied Health
What are the MODVOPP careers? * Medicine * Osteopathy * Dentistry * Veterinary medicine * Optometry * Pharmacy * Podiatry
Branch of radiology that involves the introduction of radioactive substances into the body for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Nuclear Medicine Technology
A branch of radiology involved in the treatment of disease by means of x-rays or radioactive substances. Radiation Therapy
An English physician, considered by many scholars to have laid the foundation of modern medicine. He was the first to demonstrate the function of the heart and the circulation of the blood. William Harvey
A Dutch zoologist who described bacteria by isolating the microorganism with a microscope he made. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Introduced a vaccine to prevent smallpox. Edward Jenner
Worked with bacteria to prove the germ theory of infection. Through his work, the process of pasteurization was developed. Louis Pasteur
Established the bacterial cause for many infections such as anthrax, tuberculosis and cholera. Received the Nobel Prize in 1905 for his work in developing tuberculin as a test for tuberculosis. Robert Koch
An English nurse who developed the foundations for modern nursing. Florence Nightingale
Discovered penicillin in 1928. Sir Alexander Fleming
Discovered the vaccine which helped control and prevent poliomyelitis. Jonas Salk
In 1953, at Cambridge University in England, these 2 men announced that they had discovered the "secret of life". They identified the molecular structure of DNA. Francis Crick and James Watson
List 3 ways in which hospitals are classified: * Function or type * Length of stay * Financial support or ownership
Those hospitals that focus on one particular disease or treats only a specific patient population is classified as: Specialized
What is the average length of stay in a short-term hospital? One week
A hospital that provides rehabilitation services and treatment for persons who have suffered a spinal cord injury might be classified as Long-term stay, specialized
What would be the correct classification for a VA hospital? Public
Provides care and support in various environments for those suffering from terminal illness. Hospice
Which type of health care delivery method would be provided most often at a free-standing imaging center? Outpatient/ambulatory care
What type of health care delivery would be provided for a person who requires coronary bypass surgery? Inpatient
A patient in rural Wyoming receives a consult with a physician at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota. What type of health care delivery would this entail? Telehealth
What type of care would be required for a person who cannot perform daily self-care activities? Long-term
Which of the administrative structures has increased emphasis on management levels? Vertical structure
What is an advantage of a flat (horizontal) administrative structure? streamlined communications process
The divisions of hospital departments by function is commonly: * Clinical services * Support services
The top hospital administrative officer is commonly called the: Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
The top medical staff officer is commonly referred to as the: Chief of Staff
Medication administration, chart documentation, patient assessment, and monitoring of vital signs are a few of the duties of a: Nurse
Production of images to aid in the diagnosis of disease is the primary role of health care professionals in: Radiologic and imaging sciences
Which of the following health care professionals would assist a physician in finding an antibiotic that would be safe to use on a patient who is on medication for hypertension? Pharmacist
Prior to performing a mobile imaging exam, the radiographer should consult with: The patient's nurse
Which type of payment/reimbursement system makes a payment for all services related to a particular health care need or condition, rather than for individual services? Episode-of-care
Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and preferred provider organizations (PPOs) are examples of: Managed care
One criticism of fee-for-service is that: Unnecessary services are performed to increase payments.
A cancer treatment center would be classified as a: Specialized hospital
True or False: Nurses are required to pass a national examination in order to be licensed to practice. True
Which of the following administrative structures has less emphasis on management levels? Horizontal structure
What is an advantage of a flat (horizontal) administrative structure? More financially economical
A hospital that is financially supported by a religious organization is classified as: Private, non-profit facility
Any program or service that promotes health and wellness is termed: Preventative care
Which of the imaging modalities do not require ionizing radiation to produce images? * Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) * Diagnostic medical sonography
Which imaging modality provides cross-sectional images? Computed tomography (CT)
Dynamic imaging is provided by: Fluoroscopy
Which of the following requires the greatest amount of patient contact? A. CT B. MRI C. Cardiac Interventional Radiography D. Diagnostic medical sonography D. Diagnostic medical sonography
Which of the following requires the least amount of patient contact? A. CT B. Radiography C. Mammography D. Fluoroscopy A. CT
Which of the modalities requires the use of a transducer? Diagnostic medical sonography
Radiation therapists work closely with professionals who are responsible for properly calculating the radiation dose to be administered. These professionals are known as: Dosimetrists
Which of the following acts as a liaison between the imaging department personnel, the medical staff, and the hospital administration? Department director
An experienced radiographer may seek additional education and/or degree requirements and pass the ARRT certification to qualify as a(n): Radiologist assistant
Planning, educating, supervising, organizing, coordinating, and communicating are key duties of a(n): Department director
Which of the following support personnel would be responsible for managing and organizing patient image files? File room manager
Which of the following support personnel would answer phone calls, schedule procedures, and communicate general information to the public? Clerical/secretarial staff
True or False: Outpatient imaging means that all patients are ambulatory and can cooperate for all of the physical requirements of the imaging procedure. False
When a modality, such as PET, is transported to a facility for a short time to provide imaging procedures, the delivery method is termed: Mobile imaging
Which work environment would probably involve imaging mostly inpatients? long-term care facility
Which 2 imaging modalities provide cross-sectional images? * CT * MRI
The use of non-vocal means to send messages and exchange information defines: Non-verbal communication
List 2 factors of verbal communications? Voice volume and tone
Which nonverbal cue may be offensive in some cultures? Eye contact
Which layman's term would you use to convey to a patient that you will have to obtain some images of the clavicle? Collar bone
Which of the following would be the best practice when imaging a patient who is deaf and uses sign language? Obtain an interpreter to assist in the communications for the procedure.
The ability to understand and perceive the emotions of others is termed: Empathy
Sharing the sorrow or troubles of another person demonstrates: Sympathy
A calm, but firm expression of oneself is the proper use of: Assertiveness
What is the key to a professional attitude? Treating others with respect and kindness
Which of the following emotions generally has a negative effect on one's professional attitude? Assertiveness
What changes with age and requires different communications strategies to alleviate? Fears and anxieties
Grade school age children will distrust and lose confidence in a person who uses: Baby talk
Which of the following age groups may have increased modesty to consider? Adolescents
Which age group is likely to become combative when afraid? Toddlers and preschool age
List the 3 essential components of feedback and listening? * Respond * Restate * Reflect
What is the purpose of responding, restating, and reflecting during interpersonal communications? Build rapport
What skill can be used to check for congruency between a patient's verbal and nonverbal communications? Observation
What is the primary guideline for answering patient questions? Answer only those questions that are within your scope of practice.
What is the first step to obtaining a thorough patient history? Finding the chief complaint
If a patient complains of pain, what should be verified next? Location
The stage of grief in which the patient and family seem to carry on as if nothing untoward has occurred is termed: Denial
Which of the following may bring comfort to persons who have suffered a loss? Strong religious belief
Which stage of grief is characterized by attempts to make amends or negotiations? Bargaining
The principle in medical ethics stating that the information a patient reveals to a health care provider is private and has limits on how and when it can be disclosed to a third party, defines: Confidentiality
What does the acronym HIPAA stand for? Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Which federal law protects confidentiality, access, and security of electronic health information? HIPAA
What is the purpose of HIPAA? To standardize the exchange of electronic information and protect confidentiality.
Created by: kkant