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Pharm Ch 2 - HCCRT

Pharm Ch 2 - Drug Action - HCCRT

QuestionAnswer
Clearance How quickly the body eliminates the drug
Routes of Drug Administration -Enternal(GI absorption, systemic effect)-Parenteral (IV, IM, ID, subcutaneous)-Inhalation (local absorption, local effect)-Transdermal (skin absorption, systemic effect)-Topical (local absorption, local effect)Intrathecal " "
Parenteral includes a depot which is a place of storage or fat depot
Drug Formulations -Tablet, capsule, elixir (enteral)-Solution, suspension, (parenteral)-Gas, aerosol (inhalation)-Patch, Paste (transdermal)-Powder, lotion, ointment (topical)
Suspension Something you must shake or mix first
Aerosol Suspension of a liquid or powder in a gas or powder that is inhaled
Transdermal Penetrate to the bone
Devices used to administer drugs by inhalation -Vaporizer-Atomizer-Nebulizer-Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI)-Dry Powder inhaler (DPI)-Ultasonic Nebulizer (USN)
Nebulizer Converts liquid into small particles to be inhaled
Atomizer Same as nebulized but allows large particles to pass
Ultrasonic nebulizer Electronic device vibrates small particles.
Pharmacokinetic Phase Describes the time course and disposition of the drug in the body based on these four things: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination
Absorption The process of the drug's passage into the body ex. Topical ointment
Distribution The process of the transport of the drug to the site of the need ex. Pain medicine is distributed through the blood
Metabolism The biochemical interaction the drug has with the host organism
Elimination The removal of the drug and/or its metabolites from the body
Pharmacodynamic Phase Describes the mechanisms of drug action by which a drug molecule causes its effect in the body
Structure-Activity Relation Compare Isoproterenol and Albuterol -Isoproterenol increases HR -Albuterol minimally effects HR
Drug Receptors Have unique chemical shape and electrical charge
Dose-Response Relation Dose and response are directly proportional up to the drug's maximal effect
Maximal Effect The maximum effect a drug can produce regardless of dose
Potency The dose producing 50% of the drug's maximal effect (ED50)
Therapeutic Index (TI) The ratio of the LD50 to the ED50; LD50:ED50
LD50 The dose of a drug that will be lethal for 50% of a test population
ED50 The dose of a drug that will be effective for 50% of a test population
Drug Interaction -Antagonism -Synergism -Additivity -Potentiation
Antagonism A drug or chemical that is able to bind to a receptor but causes no response (blocks receptor sites); ex. Pain blockers
Synergism Occurs when two drugs act on a target organ by different mechanisms of action, and the effect of the drug pair is greater than the sum of the separate effects of the drugs
Additivity Occurs when two drugs act on the same receptors and the combined effect is the sum of the two drugs effects, up to a maximal effect
Potentiation One drug has no effect but helps another drug increase the activity of the other drug; like a catalyst
Drug Responsiveness -Adverse -Idiosyncratic effect -Hypersensitivity -Tolerance -Tachyphylaxis -Pharmacogenetic responses
Adverse Effect BAD
Idiosyncratic effect Unusual or opposite effect, or an absence of effect
Hypersensitivity Allergic response or immune related reaction to a drug
Tolerance Describes the decreasing intensity of response to a drug over time
Tachyphylaxis Describes a rapid decrease in a responsiveness to a drug
Pharmacogenetic responses The hereditary differences in the way the body handles certain drugs
Created by: sweetpea15kp