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PSY 215

Psychopathology

QuestionAnswer
Ego constantly working to maintain balance; anxiety alerts ego to marshal defense mechanisms: unconscious protective processes that keep primitive emotions associated with conflict in check so ego can continue to do its job Defense Mechanisms
Moral standards; given by parents and society Superego
Reality principles; logical, rational thinking finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives Ego
Pleasure principles; illogical, emotional, irrational thinking. basic drives ID
constructed on development and structure of personality Hallmarks for psychoanalytic model
Freud & Breuer experimented with hypnotic procedures; found that patients became emotional and felt relieved after emerging from hypnotic state; difficult remembering some details under hypnosis; discovered the "unconscious" mind Psychoanalytic Theory
Began mental hygine movement=avocated the rights of everyone who needed care Dorthea Dix
Psychosocial approach in the 19th century that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments. Decline of moral therapy after mid 19th century Moral Therapy
Treatment practice that focuses on social and cultural factors (such as family experience) as well as psychological influences. Psychosocial approaches include cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal methods Psychosocial Approach
Plato; thought that the two causes of maladaptive behavior were the social and cultural influences in one's life and the learning that took place in that environment; psychosocial approach, moral therapy Psychological Model
Hippocrates and Galen: Hippocrates father of modner western medicine; suggested that psychological disorders could be treated like any other diease; might also be caused by brain pathology or head trauma and could be influenced by heredity Biological Model
agents outside our bodies and environment influence our behavior, thinking and emotions; demons attached to the body (used exortsim) stress and melacholy, mass hysteria, moon and the stars Supernatural Model
Cause or source of a disorder Etiology
predicted development of a disorder over time Prognosis
Pattern of development and change of a disorder over time Course
number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific period incidence
number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time Prevalence
Original complaint reported by the client to the therapist Presenting problem
the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder Clinical Description
Mental health practitioners that take a scientific approach to their clinical work; evaluate their own assessments or treatments; conduct research in clinics or hospitals Scientist Practitioner
P.H.D, Psy.D or Ed.D (school systems) Psychologists
M.D. and Specalizes Psychiatrists
psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation Phobia
the criterion that the response be atypical or not culturally expected is important yet insufficent to determine abnormality in the form of psychological disorder Atypical or Unexpected Culturally
psychological disorder must be associated with distress adds an important component and seems clear: the criterion is satisified if the individual is extremely upset Personal distress or impairment
breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning Psychological dysfunction
scientific study of psychological disorders Psychopathology
religious ritual that attributes disordered behavior to possession by demons and seeks to treat the individual by driving the demons from the body Exorcism
actions that are unexpected and often evaluated negatively because they differ from typical or usual behavior Abnormal Behavior
Psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response Psychological Disorder
Process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences Self-Actualizing
therapy mehtod in which the client, rather than the counselor, primarily directs the course of discussion, seeking self discovery and self-responsibility Person-centered therapy
acceptance by the counselor of the client's feelings and actions without judgment or condemnation Unconditional positive regard
Behavior therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation Systematic Desensitization
behaviors are altered by the consequences that follow them; positive/negative reinforces, punishments/consequences/rewards Operant Conditioning
First described by Pavlov; a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neutral stimulus). The neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desired response. ex: pavlov's dog Classical Conditioning
array of theapeutic methods based on principles of behavioral and cognitive science; considers specific behaviors rather than inferred conflicts Behaivor therapy
also known as cognitive behavioral or social learning theoretical framework; pavlov and classical conditioning; systematic desensitization; behavior therapy Behavioral model
Karl Jung & Alfred Adler broke with freud; Freud=life as a battleground where we continually in danger of being overwhelmed by dark force; emphasized positive, optimistic side of human nature; self-actualization; person-centered therapy unconditional Humanistic Theory
patients instructed to say whatever comes to mind Free association
Content of dreams reflect unconscious conflicts Dream analysis
Patients related to therapist as they did important figures in their lifes Transference
Free association, dream analysis, transference Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
Anna Freud; focused on the way in which defensive reactions of the ego determine behavior=ego psychology. abnormal beahivor develops when the ego is deficient in regulataing such functions as controlling impulses Psychoanalytic Model
Unhealthy, coping with a loss of a loved one for several years Immature
Adoptive, healthy, coping with a loss of a love one for a couple of months Mature
directs potentially maladaptive feelings or impulses into socially acceptable behavior Sublimation
Blocks disturbing wishes, thoughts, or experiences from conscious awareness Respression
Substitutes behavior, thoughts, or feelings that are the direct opposite of unacceptable ones Recation formation
Conceals the true motivations from actions, thoughts, or feelings, through elaborate reasuring or self-serving but incorrect explanations Rationalization
Falsely attributes own unacceptable feelings, impulses, or thoughts to another individual or object Projection
transfers a feeling about, or a response to, an object that causes discomfort onto another, usually less threatening, object or person Displacement
refuses to acknowledge some aspect of objective reality or subjective experience that is apparent to others Denial
During infancy and early childhood, pass through these stages of development; oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital Psychosexual stages of Development
1) psychological dysfuntion2) personal distress or impairment3) atypical or unexpected culturally Components of Psychological Disorder
DenialDisplacementProjectionRationalizationReaction formationRepressionSublimation Examples of Defense Mechanisms
IdEgoSuperego Structure of the Mind
Approach to the study of psychopathology that holds psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors Multidimensional Integrative Approach
Long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, the basic phsyical unit of heredity that appears as a location on a chromosome Gene
Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder Diathesis-stress model
Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder Vulnerability
Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder Reciprocal gene-environment model
Study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions Neuroscience
Consists of brain and sprinal cord; processes all information received from our sense organs and reacts as necessary. Central Nervous System
Primary function is to facilitate the sending of messages to and from the brain. Spinal Cord
uses 140 billion nerves cells (neuron) to everyt thought and action Brain
Contains a central body with two kinds of branches: dendrite, axon, synaptic cleft, neurotransmitter, neuron Neuron
Individual nerve cell responsible for transmitting information Neuron
Space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next Synaptic Celft
Relative excess or deficiency of neurotransmitters is involved in several psychological disorders Neurotransmitters
numerous receptors that receive messages in the form of chemical impulses from other nerve cells, which are converted into electrical impulses. Dendrites
transmits these impulses to other neurons. Axon
Coordinates with brain stem to make sure that the body is working properly Peripheral Nervous System
Controls the muscles (so any damage to this area may impact abaility to engage in any voluntary movement; ie. talking) Somatic Nervous System
Responsible for regulating the cardarvascular system (ie. the heart and blood vessels) Autonomic Nervous System
assist in digestion and regulating body temperature Endocrine System
5 Neurotransmitters Glutamate, Gamma-aminobutyic acid (GABA), serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine
is an excitatory transmitter that turns on many different neurons, leading to action Glutamate
is an inhibitory neurotransmitter; regulates the transmission of info and action potential; reacts postsynaphic activity; brother with Glutamate GABA
neurotransmitter resposible for processing information and coording movement regulates eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors serotonin
two groups: alpha & beta; keeps blood pressure and heart rate low, also known as noradrenaline norepinephrine
implicated with schizophrena; too active drug inhitbit the acitivity dopamine
a more consistent period of emotinality mood
momentary emotional tone that accompanies what we say or do affect
Example: Cloudy outside; Raining Mood; Affect
DisordersTypically conceptualized with mix of emotional, behavioral and cognitive symptoms Psychological DisordersTypically conceptualized with mix of emotional, behavioral and cognitive symptoms
Behavior Physiology Cognition Components of Emotion
Field of study that examines how humans and other animals acquire, process, store, and retrieve information Cognitive Science
Martin Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives (whether or not they actually have control). Learned Helplessness
Learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and consequences of that behavior Modeling
Condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events despite acting in response to them Implicit Memory
Pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic phsyiological response Emotion
Biological reaction to alarming stressors that musters the body's resources (for example, blow flow and respiration) to resist or flee a threat. Flight or Fight Response
Basic patterns of emotional behaivor (freeze, attack) Behavior
Emotion is a brain function involving the more primative brain areas Physiology
Appraisal, attributions and other ways of processing the world around you that are functionmental to emotional experience Cognition
Characterized by various anxiety based systoms includes insomnia, irritability, phobias marked by somatic Susto
Roles have a strong and sometimes confusing effect on psychopathology Gender
Developmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several causes Equifinality
The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span Life-Span Development
Systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder Clinical Assessment
Process or determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder Diagnosis
Degree to which a measurement is consistent-for example, over time or among different raters Reliability
Degree to which a technique measures what it purports to measure Validity
Process of establishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions. Including instructions for administering the measure, evaluating its findings and comparing these with data Standardization
Two raters getting same answers Interrator Reliability
Some results today and the same results when retested Test-Retest
Systematic observation of someone's behavior Mental Status Exam
Physical behaviors, dress/attire, posture, appearance Appearance/Behavior
Rate/flow of speech, reasonable vocab Thought Processes
Awareness of our surroundings; person, place, time Sensorium/Orientation
Rule out medical Conditioning Physical Examination
Measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the clients' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in the acutal problem situation or context Behavioral Assessment
Antecedent Behavior Consequence ABC
Used to assess psychological disorders that must meet the strict standards we have noted: must be reliable that two or more people administering the same test to the same person come to the same conclusion; and it must be valid. Psychological Tests
Psychoanalytically based measure that presents ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their reponses can reval their unconscious conflicts. Such tests are inferential and lack high reliability and validity Projective Test
Consists of a seris of 31 cards: 30 with pictures on them and 1 blank card, although only 20 cards are typically used during each administration Thematic Apperception Test
One of the early projective tests; the test includes 10 inkblot pictures that serve as the ambiguous stimuli; the examiner presents the inkblots one by one to the person being assessed who responsed by telling what he or she sees Rorschach Inkblot Test
Self-report questionnaire that assesses personal traits by asking respondents to identify descriptions that apply to themselves Personality Inventory
Developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon; test would identify "slow learners" who would benefit from remdial help Intelligence Testing
Assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual's performance on behavioral tasks Neuropsychological Testing
Pictures of the Brain; Sophisticated computer-aided procedures that aloow noninstructive examinination of nervous system structure and function Neuroimaging
Test provided a score known as an IQ; IQ scores were calculated by using the child's mental age Standfort Binent Test
Measurements in areas of attention, perception, memory, reasoning, verbal comprension, Intelligence
Other Kids of Intelligence Verbal Logical/mathmatical Visual/Spatial Bodily Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal
Measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psycholgoical or emotional events such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal Psychophysiolgoical Assessment
Measure of electrical activity patterns in the brain, taken through electrodes placed on the scalp EEG
Asignment of objects or poeple to categories on the basis of shared characteristics Classification
System of naming and classification in science Taxonomy
Classification and naming system for medical and psychological phenomena Nosology
In a smaing system or nosology, the actual labels or names that are applied. In psychopathology, these include mood disorders and eating disorders Nomenclature
Classification method founded on the assumption of clear-cut differences among disorders, each with a different known cause. Also known as pure categorgical approach Classifcal Categorical Approach
Method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binaray, either-or, or all-or-none basis Dimensional Approach
System for categorizing disorders using both essential, defining characteristics and a range of variation on other characteristics Prototypical Approach
Applying a name to a phenomenon or a pattern of behavior. The label may acquire negative connotations or be applied erroneously to the person rather than to that person's behavior Labeling
Educated guess or statement to be tested by research Hypothesis
Plan of experimentation used to test a hypothesis Research Deisgn
Extent to which the results of a study can be attributed to the independent variable after confounding alternative explanations have been ruled out Internal Validity
Extent to which research findings generalized, or apply, to people and settings not involved in the study External Validity
Ability of a hypothesis, for example, to be subjected to scientific scrutiny and to be accepted or rejected, a necessary condition for the hypothesis to be useful Testability
in an experimental study, the phenomenon that is measured and expected to be influenced Dependent Variable
Phenomenon manipulated by the experimenter in a study and expected to influence the dependent variable Independent Variable
Variable in a research study that was not part of the intended deisgn and that may contribute to changes in the dependent variable Confounding Variable
Grouple of individuals in a study who are similar to the experimental subjects in every way but are not exposed to the treatment received by the experimental group Control Group
Method for placng individuals into research groups that assures each an equal chance of being assigned to any group, thus eliminating any systematic differences across group Radnomization
Apporach to research that employs subjects who are similar to clincial clients, allowing replcation of clincial problem under controlled conditions Analog Model
Extent to which research results apply to a range of individuals no included in the study Generalizability
Small probability of obtaining the observed research findings by chance Statistical Significance
Degree to which research findings have useful and meaningful applications to real problems Cinical Significance
Types of Research Methods Studying Indivdual Cases Research By Correlation Research By Experiment Single-Case experimental Design Research By Experiment Single-case experimental designs
Research tactic in whcih an independent variable is manipulated for a single individual, allowing cause-and-effect conclusions but with limited generalizability Single-Case Experimental Deisgn
A Study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins Twins Study
A study in which investigators seek to discover whether, in behavior and psychological characteristics, adopted children are more like thier parents. Adoption Study
A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time Cross-sectional Approach
A research strategy in which the same individual are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more Longitudinal Approach
Genetic study that examines patterns of traits and behaviors among relatives Family Study
Created by: alilovesu807