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Intro Rad Pro Week 2

Intro Rap Protection Week 2

QuestionAnswer
The Law of ____ states that the radiosensitivity of living tissue is a function of the metabolism and maturation of that tissue. Bergonie and Tribondeau
Tissue that are ___ with a ___ metabolic rate are more radiosensitive. immature, high
___ is a measure of the rate that energy is transferred from ionizing radiation to soft tissue. LET
As LET ____ the RBE____. Increases, increases
A protracted dose of radiation is given all at one short exposure
The LET of diagnostic x-rays is ___ keV/im. 3.0
The RBE of diagnostic x-rays is equal to__. 1
Tissue is ___ radiosensitive under high oxygen conditions and ___ radiosensitive under hypoxic conditions. More, less
Fractionation and protraction are used for radiation therapy beacuse they allow the patient to (All of the above) Recover between doses, have higher total doses, repair damaged tissues
Humans are most radiosensitve during. Fetal stages
The possible beneficial effect of small amount of radiation is called hormesis
A ___ response to radiation is directly proportional to the dose received. Linear
If a response to radiation is expected no matter how small the dose, then that dose-response is nonthreshold
Radiation-induced genetic damage follows a ___ dose-response relationship linear-nonthreshold
The human dose-response relationship at low ranges of radiation is calculated using extrapolation from high ranges
The most radiosensitive macromolecule is___ DNA
The disassociation of water molecules following irradiation is termed___ radiolysis
When an atom of water is irradiated, it first dissociates into an ion pair
Two OH* free radicals can join to form____ molecules Hydrogen peroxide
According to target theory, the target molecule of a cell is the DNA in the nucleus
An indirect effect from ionizing radiation occurs on a ____ molecule water
A hit to a cell target can occur from a(n)____ effect. Both indirect and direct
The probability of a hit increased with___ oxygen and ____ LET radiation. High, High
The principal radiation interactions within the human body are assumed to be indirect effects
_____ are very large molecules that sometimes consist of hundreds of thousands of atoms. Macromolecules
Two smaller units of metabolism Catabolism and Anabolism
The chief function of _____ in the body is to provide fuel for cell metabolism Carbohydrates
___ is the radiation-sensitive target molecule DNA
Only adenine-______ and _____-guaine base bonding is possible in DNA. thymine, cytosine
Radiation-induced chromosome damage is analyzed during ______ metaphase
_____ is the process whereby genetic cells undergo reduction division Meiosis
_____ are more sensitive to radiation than mature cells Stem cells
Dose ___ and ____ cause less effect because time is allowed for intracellular repair and tissue recovery protraction, fractionation
____ _____ imaging is performed under conditions of full oxygenation. Diagnostic x-ray
_______ occurs when cell dies before replicating Interphase death
The combined processes of ______ and _____ contribute to recovery from radiation damage intracellular repair, repopulation
Radiation-induced cancer, leukemia and genetic effects follow a ________ close-response relationship linear-nonthreshould
At low radiation doses, _____ are considered to be the cellular radiation damage that results in the late radiation effects observed at the whole-body level. point lesions
____ is the most radiosensitive molecules DNA
The reduction of nutrient molecules for energy catabolism
The production of large molecules for form and function anabolism
_______ occurs when cell dies before replicating Interphase death
The combined processes of ______ and _____ contribute to recovery from radiation damage intracellular repair, repopulation
Radiation-induced cancer, leukemia and genetic effects follow a ________ close-response relationship linear-nonthreshould
At low radiation doses, _____ are considered to be the cellular radiation damage that results in the late radiation effects observed at the whole-body level. point lesions
____ is the most radiosensitive molecules DNA
The reduction of nutrient molecules for energy catabolism
The production of large molecules for form and function anatoblism
Diagnostic x ray beams always result in a ________ exposure which is less harmful than whole body exposure partial body
The immediate response of radiation sickness is the ____ period prodromal
The ____ period is the time after exposure during which there is no sign of radiation sickness latent
The _____ syndrome is characterized by a reduction in white cell, red cells, and platelets hematologic
Acute radiation lethality follows a -______, _____ does-response relationship nonlinear, threshold
____ is the shrinkage of an organ or tissue due to cell death Atrophy
The most radiosensitive cell during female germ cell development is the ____ in the mature follicle oocyte
the _____ and the ______ are the most radiosensitive cells in the body lymphocytes, spermatogonia
Dose response relationship, any dose, regardless of its size, is expected to produce a response nonthreshold
A ___ _____ is an unchanged molecule that contains a single unparied electron in the outer shell free radical
If the initial ionizing event occurs on the target molecule, the effect of radiation is? direct
For a cell to die after radiation exposure, its target molecule must be inactivated Target theory
Threshold Dose: Death Whole body 200rad/2 Gy
Threshold Dose: Hematologic depression Whole body 25rad/250 mGy
Threshold Dose: Skin erythema Small field 200rad/ 2 Gy
Threshold Dose: Epilation Small field 300rad/ 3 Gy
Threshold Dose: Chromosome abberration Whole body 5 rad/50 mGy
Threshold dose: Gonadal dysfunction Local tissue 10 rad/100 mGy
Diagnostic x ray beams always result in ___ _____ exposure, which is less harmful than ____ ____ exposure partial body, whole body
Three acute radiation syndromes hematologic death, GI death, and CNS death
Acute radiation lethality: Prodromal >100rad Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Acute radiation lethality: Latent 100 to 10,000rad None
Acute radiation lethality: hematologic 200 to 1000rad Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, leukopenia, hemoorhage, fever, infection
Acute radiation lethality: GI 1000 to 5000rad Same as hematologic plus, electrolyte imbalance, lethargy, fatigue, shock
Acute radiation lethality: CNS >5000rad Same as GI plus, ataxia, edema, system vasculitis, meningitis
Relative risk observed cases divided by expected cases
Created by: Joker71