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Sherer Ch1

QuestionAnswer
Radiation Protection effective measures employed by radiation workers to safe guard patients, personnel, and the general public from unnecessary radiation exposure to ionizing radiation
the degree to which the diagnostic study accurately reveals the presence or absence of disease Diagnostic Efficacy
traditional unit of measure for EqD rem
damage to living tissue of animals and human beings exposed to radiation biologic effects
biologic effects of ionizing radiation or other agents on generations yet unborn genetic effects
genetic or somatic changes in a living organism (eg mutation, cataracts, leukemia), caused by excessive cellular damage from exposure to ionizing radiation organic damage
radiation quantity used for rad protection purposes when a person receives various types of ionizing radiation. This quantity attempts to numerically specify the differences in biologic harm that are produced b different types of radiation Equivalent Dose (EqD)
uses weighting factors to determine radiation dose and chance of each of those body parts developing radiation-induced cancer or genetic damage Effective Dose (EfD)
SI unit of measure for EqD Sv
Background Radiation Equivalent Time method of comparing the amount of radiation received from a rad procedure with natural background radiation received over a given period.
produces positively and negatively charged particles (ions) when passing through matter ionizing radiation
full range of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic Spectrum
energy that passes from one location to another radiation
cellular damage injury on the cellular level caused by sufficient exposure to ionizing radiation at the molecular level
natural sources of ionizing radiation that become increased because of accidental or deliberate human actions, such as mining. enhanced natural resources
identical to high-speed elecrons, except they are emitted from the nuclei of radioactive atoms instead of originating in atomic shells beta particles
number of protons contained in within the nucleus of an atom atomic number (Z#)
radiation produced as a consequence of nuclear weapons testing and chemical explosions in nuclear power plants fallout
unstable nucleus that emits one or more forms of ionizing radiation to achieve greater stability radionuclide
EqD necessary to produce hematological changes .25 Sv (25 rem)
EqD necessary to cause nausea & diarrhea 1.5 Sv (150 rem)
EqD necessary to cause erythema 2 Sv (200 rem)
EqD necessary to cause temporary sterility of dose is to gonads 2.5 Sv (250 rem)
EqD necessary to cause 50% chance of death; lethal dose for 50% of population over 30 days (LD 50/30) 3.0 Sv (300 rem)
EqD necessary to cause death 6.0 Sv (600 rem)
What are the 4 radioactive nuclides found in the body Potassium-40, Carbon-14, Hydrogen-3, Stronium-90
6 sources of manmade ionizing radiation medical diagnostic, nuclear power plant accidents, consumer products, air travel, atmospheric fallout, nuclear fuel
3 advantages to BERT simple to understand, implies no risk factors, acknowledges radiation natural part of life
3 ways to indicate the amount of radiation received by patient Entrance Skin Exposure (ESE), Bone Marrow Dose, Gonadal Dose
What is the aim of the ETHOS project to rebuild acceptable living conditions for local citizens in contaminated territories in the Ukraine region by actively involving them in the reconstruction process
2006 total amount of annual background radiation per person 6.25 mSv (625 rem)
BERT EfD for Dental, Intraoral procedure 1 week (.06 mSv, 6 mrem)
BERT EfD for CXR 10 days (.08 mSv, 8 mrem)
BERT EfD for T-Spine 6 months (1.5 mSv, 150 mrem)
BERT EfD for L-Spine 1 year (3.0 mSv, 300 mrem)
BERT EfD for Upper GI Series 1.5 years (4.5 mSv, 450 mrem)
BERT EfD for Lower GI Series 2 years (6.0 mSv, 600mrem)
Artificial teeth made in the US are estimated to give the tissues of the oral cavity how much exposure per year 600 mSv/yr
EPA recommendation for radon levels in air not to exceed 4 pCi/L
EPA limit of Radon will yield annual EqD to the lung of what? .05 mSv (5mrem)
EPA estimates what percentage of homes exceed recommended levels of radon 10%
The only levels of energy classified as ionizing radiation start at what level 10 eV (high energy UV rays, X-rays, Gamma Rays)
ORP stands for? Optimization for radiation protection - synonymous with ALARA
March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island disaster
EqD received by population as a result of TMI .02 mSv (2mrem)
Quantity of Iodine-131 that escaped TMI 15 Curies
April 26, 1986 Chernobyl disaster
more than 200 people received a whole body dose of ___ during Chernobyl disaster 1 Sv (100 rem)
24 workers died in Chernobyl disaster by receiving doses greater than ___? 4 Sv (400 rem)
There was over ____ times the amount of radioactive material released at Chernobyl as compared to TMI 1 million
Why do smokers exposed to high levels of radon face a higher risk of lung cancer than nonsmokers? radioactivity in lead-210 & polonium-210 contained in tobacco & tobacco smoke.
Bone Marrow Dose from Skull X-ray 10 mrad
Bone Marrow Dose from C-Spine series 20 mrad
Bone Marrow Dose from from CXR 2mrad
Bone Marrow Dose from Stomach/ UGI 100 mrad
Bone Marrow Dose from L-Spine series 60 mrad
Bone Marrow Dose from from IVU 25mrad
Bone Marrow Dose from Abdomen 30 mrad
Bone Marrow Dose from Pelvis 20 mrad
Bone Marrow Dose from from Extremity exams 2 mrad
Typical Gonadal Dose from skull series, C-spine, dental, CXR, extremity <1mrad (male & female)
Typical Gonadal Dose from L-spine series 175 mrad male, 400 mrad female
Typical Gonadal Dose from IVU 150 mrad male, 300 mrad female
Typical Gonadal Dose from abdomen 100 mrad male, 200 mrad female
Typical Gonadal Dose from Pelvis 300 mrad male, 150 mrad female
Permissible Skin Entrance Exposure for PA CXR 10-25mR
Permissible Skin Entrance Exposure for LAT Skull 105-240mR
Permissible Skin Entrance Exposure for for AP Abdomen 375-700mR
Permissible Skin Entrance Exposure for Retrograde Pyelogram 475-830mR
Permissible Skin Entrance Exposure for AP C-Spine 35-165mR
Permissible Skin Entrance Exposure for for AP T-Spine 295-485mR
Permissible Skin Entrance Exposure for Extremity 10-330mR
Permissible Skin Entrance Exposure for Dental 230-425mR
1986 EfD from Radon 55% - 198mrem
1986 EfD from Cosmic Rays 8% - 29mrem
1986 EfD from Terrestrial Radiation 8% - 29mrem
1986 EfD from Internal Radiation 11% - 39mrem
1986 EfD from Medical X-rays 11% - 39mrem
1986 EfD from Nuclear Medicine 4% - 14mrem
1986 EfD from Consumer Products 3% - 10mrem
1986 EfD from Other sources <1% - 2mrem
1986 EfD from Manmade sources 18% - 65mrem
1986 EfD from Natural sources 82% - 295mrem
1986 total annual EfD 360 mrem
2006 EfD from Radon & Thoron 37%
2006 EfD from Space 5%
2006 EfD from Internal Radiation 5%
2006 EfD from Terrestrial Radiation 5%
2006 EfD from CT 24%
2006 EfD from Nuclear Medicine 12%
2006 EfD from Interventional Fluoroscopy 7%
2006 EfD from conventional Radiography/fluoroscopy 5%
2006 EfD from consumer products 2%
2006 EfD from occupational & industrial uses <.1% each
2006 total annual EfD 6.25 mSv
2006 EfD from medical uses 48%
2006 EfD from from background 50%
Flight on a typical commercial airliner results in what EqD/hr .005 - .01mSv/hr (.5-1mrem/hr)
Created by: jen.studer