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# Psych: Methods

### AP Psych cards for Methods

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Hindsight Bias | "I-knew-it-all-along" Tendency upon hearing about an event passed to think that they knew it all along. |

Applied Research | Research that has clear, practical applications and is used to solve practical problems. |

Basic Research | Research that explores questions that are of interest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications. |

Hypothesis | A statement that expresses a relationship between two variables. |

Theory | Aims to explain some phenomenon and allow researchers to generate testable hypothesis with the hope of collecting data that supports them. |

Operational Definitions | An explanation of how variables are measured. |

Validity | Measures what the researcher set out to measure; it is accurate. |

Reliability | Can be replicated; it is consistent. |

Sampling | The process by which participants are selected. |

Population | The group from which a sample is selected. |

Random Selection | Method of selecting a sample in that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. |

Stratified Sampling | A process that allows a researcher to ensure that the sample represents the population on some criteria. |

Experiment | The only research method that can show a causal relationship. Allows the researcher to manipulate the IV, and control for confounding variables. |

Confounding variables | Any difference between the experimental and control conditions that might affect the dependent variable [except for IV] |

Assignment | Process by which participants are put into either an experimental or a control group. |

Random Assignment | Method of assigning participants to conditions such that each has an equal chance of being placed into experimental groups. |

Experimenter Bias | Unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis. |

Double-Blind Procedure | Method in that neither the participants nor the researcher are aware of who is in the experimental or control groups. |

Participant Bias | Tendency for subjects to behave in a certain way based on their perception of an experiment. [Placebo- Effect?] |

Hawthorne Effect | Being selected to be in a group of people to participate in an experiment will affect the performance of that group, regardless of what is done to those individuals. |

Correlation | Statistical measure of a relationship between two variables. [(+),(-),(0)] |

Scatter Plot | Graph of correlated data |

Survey Method | Asking people to give opinions or attitudes. |

Naturalistic Observation | Observing participants in their natural habitats without interacting with them. |

Case Study | Research method used to get a full, detailed picture of one participant or small group. |

Descriptive Statistics | Ways of describing a set of data. [Ex: Measures of central Tendency] |

Measure of Variability | Range, variance, and standard deviation. |

Normal Curve | Bell-shaped curve that represents a distribution of scores. |

Inferential Statistics | Statistics that can determine whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected. |

Statistical Significance | There is less than a 5% chance that the results occurred by chance. |

APA Ethical for Human Research | Coercion, Informed consent, Anonymity/confidentiality, lack of risk, debriefing procedures. |

APA Ethical for Animal Research | Clear scientific purpose, care for and house animals humanely, acquire animal subjects legally, design procedures that employ the least amount of suffering. |