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Chap. 1 & 2

Intoduction to Sociology

QuestionAnswer
What is sociology? The systematic study of human society.
What is sociological perspective? The special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people.
What is global perspective? The study of the larger world and our society's place in it.
What is positivism? A scientific approach to knowledge based on positive facts as opposed to mere speculation.
What is theory? A statement of how and why specific facts are related.
What is the theoretical approach? It is a basic image of society that guides thinking and research.
What is the structural-functional approach? It is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
What are social functions? The consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole.
What are manifest functions? The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
What are latent functions? The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern.
What is the social-conflict approach? It is a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change.
What is the gender-conflict approach? It is a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and man.
What is social structure? Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior.
What is social dysfunction? Any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society.
What are high-income countries? The nations that have the highest overall standards of living.
What are middle-income countries? Nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole.
What are low-income countries? Nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor.
What is feminism? Support of social equality for women and men.
What is the race-conflict approach? A point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories.
What is the macro-level orientation? A broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole.
What is the micro-level orientation? A close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations.
What is the symbolic-interaction approach? A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.
What is positivist sociology? The study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior.
What is science? A logical system that develops knowledge from direct, systematic observation.
What is empirical evidence? Information we can verify with our senses.
Concept A mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in s simplified form.
Variable A concept whose value changes from case to case.
Measurement A procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case.
Reliability Consistency in measurement.
Validity Actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure.
Correlation A relationship in which two (or more) variables change together.
Cause and effect A relationship in which change in one variable (the independent variable) causes change in another (the dependent variable).
Interpretive sociology The study of society that focuses on the need for social change.
Critical sociology The study of society that focuses on the need for social change.
Gender The personal traits and social positions that memebers of a society attach to being female or male.
Culture The ways of thinking, the ways of acting and the material objects that together form a people's way of life.
Society People who interact in a defined territory and share a culture.
Culture Shock Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life.
Symbol Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.
Language A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another.
Cultural Transmission The process by which one generation passes culture to the next.
Sapir-Whorf thesis The idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language.
What is social structure? Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior.
What is social dysfunction? Any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society.
What are high-income countries? The nations that have the highest overall standards of living.
What are middle-income countries? Nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole.
What are low-income countries? Nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor.
What is feminism? Support of social equality for women and men.
What is the race-conflict approach? A point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories.
What is the macro-level orientation? A broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole.
What is the micro-level orientation? A close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations.
What is the symbolic-interaction approach? A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.
What is positivist sociology? The study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior.
What is science? A logical system that develops knowledge from direct, systematic observation.
What is empirical evidence? Information we can verify with our senses.
Concept A mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in s simplified form.
Variable A concept whose value changes from case to case.
Measurement A procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case.
Reliability Consistency in measurement.
Validity Actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure.
Correlation A relationship in which two (or more) variables change together.
Cause and effect A relationship in which change in one variable (the independent variable) causes change in another (the dependent variable).
Interpretive sociology The study of society that focuses on the need for social change.
Critical sociology The study of society that focuses on the need for social change.
Gender The personal traits and social positions that memebers of a society attach to being female or male.
Culture The ways of thinking, the ways of acting and the material objects that together form a people's way of life.
Society People who interact in a defined territory and share a culture.
Culture Shock Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life.
Symbol Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.
Language A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another.
Cultural Transmission The process by which one generation passes culture to the next.
Sapir-Whorf thesis The idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language.
Values Culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living.
Beliefs Specific ideas that people hold to be true.
Norms Rules and expectations by which a society guides that behavior of its members.
Mores Norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance.
Folkways Norms for routine or casual interaction.
Technology Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings.
Hunting and gathering The use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food.
Horticulture The use of hand tools to raise crops.
Pastoralism The domestication of animals.
Agriculture Large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources.
Industry The production of good using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery.
Postindustrialism The production of information using computer technology.
High culture Cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite.
Popular culture Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population.
Subculture Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population.
Multiculturalism A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions.
Eurocentrism The dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns.
Afrocentrism Emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns.
Counterculture Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society.
Cultural integration The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system.
Cultural lag The fact that some cultural elements change more quickly that others, disrupting a cultural system.
Ethnocentrism The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture.
Cultural relativism The practice of judging a cultural by its own standards.
Created by: Shanti2