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Psychology History

Psychology History Cards (1-18)

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Set up first psychological laboratory in an apartment near the university at Leipzig, Germany Trained subjects in introspection. Subjects were asked to accurately record their cognitive reactions to simple stimuli
Introspection Technique used by Wilhelm Wundt who asked subjects to accurately record their cognitive reactions to simple stimuli. Through this process, Wundt hoped to examine basic mental processes
William James (1842-1910) Published "The Principles of Psychology," the science's first textbook
Functionalism Theory described by William James Examines how the mental processes by Wilhelm Wundt function in our lives
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) Gestalt psychologist Argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures Examine a person's total experience rather than an accumulation Demonstrated whole experience is more than the sum of the parts of the experience
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Believed he discovered the unconscious mind--a part of our mind that our conscious mind cannot control that determines, in part, how we think and behave Used dream analysis, word association, etc. Criticized for being unscientific/unverifiable theor
Psychoanalytic Theory Part of unconscious mind which can't be controlled by conscious mind determines, in part, how we think and behave
John Watson (1878-1958) Declared that psychology must limit itself to observable behaviors to be considered a science Maintained that psychologists should look at behavior and causes of behavior, not concerning themselves with describing elements of consciousness
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Performed pioneering conditioning experiments on dogs These experiments led to the development of the classical conditioning model of learning
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Expanded the basic ideas of behaviorism with "reinforcement:" environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses Helped establish and popularize the operant conditioning model of learning
Behaviorism Maintains that psychologist should look only at behavior and causes of behavior--stimuli (environmental events) and responses Dominant school of thought from 1920s - 1960s
Humanist Perspective Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Stressed individual choice and free will Contrasts with behaviorists who theorized that all behaviors are caused by past conditioning we choose most behaviors which are guided by physiological/emotional/spiritual ne
Psychoanalytic Perspective Unconscious mind (part of mind that can't be consciously controlled) controls much of our thoughts and actions Look for impulses or memories mushed into unconscious mind through repression Used dream analysis, word association, etc
Biopsychology (or Neuroscience) Perspective Explain human thought and behavior strictly in terms of biological processes Human cognition and reactions might be caused by effects of genes, hormones, and neurotransmitters in brain
Evolutionary (or Darwinian) Perspective Examines human thought and actions in terms of natural selection Stresses that some psychological traits might be advantageous for survival, traits passed down from parents Similar to/subset of Biopsychology Perspective
Behavioral Perspective Explains human thought and behavior in terms of conditioning Looks strictly at observable behaviors and what reaction organisms get in response to specific behaviors
Cognitive Perspective Examines human thought and behavior in terms of how we interpret, process, and remember environmental events Believe that our perspectives are important to understanding why we think/behave the way we do
Social-Cultural (or Sociocultural) Perspective Looks at how our thoughts and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures Emphasizes the influence culture has on the way we think and act
Created by: aries_shine
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