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Chapter 1

Psychology chapter test

QuestionAnswer
1.One of the reasons to study psychology is to
2. The word psychology comes from the roots psyche and logos, which means respectively mind and knowledege or study.
3.Psychology would best be described as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
4.Psychologists may be scientist, practitioners, and /or teachers.
5. The research conducted by psychologist involves
6. A common sense approach to psycholgoy is
7. According to your psychology textbook, which of the following activities world be considered "behavior"?
8. Overt behavior includes only those things that can be observed.
9. Which of the following behaviors can best be described as overt behavior?
10. Professor Reed asked her introductory psychology students to give an example of a covert behavior. Which of the following world be an example of a covert behavior?
11.
12. Information gained from direct observation and measurement defines empirical evidence.
13. _________ involves information gained from direct observation. empirical evidence.
14. A scientist wants to find out if there is empirical evidence for a relationship between caffeine and aggressive behaivor. She would
15. A systematic process for answering scientific questions is called a research method.
16. Some topics in psychology are difficult to study because
17. It may be difficult to study the difference in academic achievement between children who do and do not eat breakfast at a boarding school because
18.When animal behavior is used to discover principles that may apply to human behavior, we say that the research is utilizing a(n) animal model
19.Teaching primates to communicate in sign language in orde to develop better methods for teaching language to aphasic children wold be an eample of a(n) animal model
20. The golas of psychology are to describe, understand, _________, and control behavior. predict
21.A psychologist who observes a child for a week and writes a report that identifies and classifices the child's behavior is working toward the goal of description.
22. (Why) questions refer to which of psychology's goals? description
23. the psychological goal of understanding behavior is achieved when psychololgist can explain why a behavioral phenomenon occurs.
24. John's poor performance in reading was found to be due to visual discrimination probelms. This determination of a cause for his poor reding performacne illustrates which gals of psychology? understanding
25. Which goal psychology is issustrated by a psychologist seeking to descover (why) sociopaths tend to repeat thier destructive behavior? prediction
26. When current knowledge about an individual and his or her environment can be used to accurately forecast behavior at another time or in another setting, the scientific goal of _______ has been acheived. prediction
27. Students who do well on an itelligence test tend to do well in their school grades. This ability of the IQ tests to forecast future school success illustrates which goal of psychology? prediction
28. Michelle has learned to aviod situations in which she tends to abuse alcohol. She is exercising the goal of control
29. Critical thinking encomplasses which of the following? (empirical testing, a willingness to actively evaluate ideas, an open mind) all of these
30. Critical thinking is psychology involves (using conventaional wisdom and common sense, a reliance on the opinions of experts, using the scientific method) all of these
31. ________ is an ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information. Critical thinking
32. Critical thinking includes which of the following questions? (do the findings appear to be objective?, what was the nautre and quality of the tests?, has any other independent researcher duplicated the findings?) all of these questions
33. In her psychology classes, Dr. Murphey uses probelm-based learning cases in order to enhance her students' abilities to analyze, compare, synthesize, and evaluate information about real life cases--the Dr. is attempting to increase her studnet's critical thinking skills
34. Any false and unscientific system of beliefts and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior is called pseudo-psychology
35. In describing pseudopsychologies, it can be said that they are characterized by all of these statements...(give the appearance of science but are actually false, have changed alittle over time, have followers who avoid evidence that contradicts their beliefs)
36. According to your textbook, which of the following is considered to be a pseudo-psycholgoy?
37. According to your text book, which of the following is NOT a pseudo-psychology? Psychoanalysis
38. to assess your personality, a phrenolgoist would want to examine the shape of your skull
39. _______Is the out-dated theory that personality is revealed by the bumps on the skull. Phrenolgoy
40. the fortune teller who studies yur palm carefully before announcing that great fortune is in your immediate future is practicing _______psychology. pseudo
41. to assess your personality, a graphologist would want to study your handwriting
41. rose is using an astrolgoy program on her computer. by using this pseudo-psychology computer program, she is trying to explain how her life is influenced by the position of the stars and planets at her birth
43. Objections to astrology as a science would include which of the following? all of these are objectsions to astrolgoy as a science...
44. Systems such as astrolgoy and graphology, enjoy wide popularity because of their uncritical acceptance
45. Sid believes his dreams forcast the future. he describes all the dreams that came true in the last month.......Sid's tendency to remember the times his dreams came true and forget the times they did not is the fallacy of positive instances
46.
47. the more general the prediction a fortune teller or palmist makes, the more believable are the results. this fact has been clalled the the Barnum effect
48. With respect to astrolgoy, palmistry, and phrenolgoy, it can be said that all are pseudo-psychologies
49. _______ is based on a careful collection of observable evidence, precise definitions, and repeartable results. the scientific method
50. Among other thins, the scientific method is based on All of these (a careful collection of evidence, accurate descriptions, and measurement, and repeatable results)
51. Which of the following is NOT one of the six elements of the scientific methods? common sense
52. Which of the following is part of the scientific methods? difining a problem
53. the six steps of the sceintific method include observation, defining a problem, proposing a hypotheses, testing they hypotheses, publishing the results, and theory building
54. An educated guess about what is controlling some behavior is called a(n) hypothesis
55. A(n) _______ states the exact procedures used to represent a concept. operational difinition
56. the father of psycholgoy and founder of the first psychological laboratory was Wilhelm Wundt
57. Wundt observed stimuli of various kinds and then used a process called _______ to probe his reactions to these stimuli. introspection
58. The structuralist school of psychology
59. William James wrote Principle of Psychology and founded Functionalism
60. ______, an American scholar, broadened psychology to include animal behavior, religious experience, and abnormal behavior and helped to establish psychology as a separate discipline with his first book, Principles of Psychology Williams James
61. the concept of natural selection was adapted to the study of human behavior by which of the early psychologists?
62. the functionalists were interested in how thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and habits help people and animals. adapt to their envionment
63. ____is the school of thought is psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observalbe behavior. Behaviorism
64. _____realized that he could study the overt behavior of animals by simple observing the relationship between stimuli and an animal's response. John B. Watson
65. According to John B. Watson, introspection was unscientific
66.
67. Who said, "Give me a dozen healthy infants...and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him ot become any type of specialist I might select...? John Watson
68. Pavlov's contribution to behaviorism lies in his discover of the conditioned response
69. Stimuli, responses, conditionaing, and learning are key concepts in the thiking of
70. The idea that a behavior is controlled by rewards and punishments is most closely assocated with B. F. Skinner
71. Skinner's contribution to behaviorism lies in his insistence that behavior is shaped and maintained by rewards and punishments
72. Skinner's view of psychology has led to some criticism of his tendency to
73. Radical behaviorists were criticized for ignoring the role that _____ play(s) in our lives. thinking
74._____is the proper use of rewards, punishments, and conditioning to change probelms, such as overeating, unrealistic fears, and temper tantrums.
75. The "whole is greater than the sum of its parts" is the slogan of the Gestalt psychologist.
76. The founder of psychoanalytic psycholgoy was Sigmund Freud
77. As used by Freud, the unconscious refers to the area of the mind that lies outside of personal awareness
78. Contributions of Freud include All of these (the insistence that all thoughts, desires, and actions are determined, the development of the method of psycholtherapy , emphasis on the importance of childhood expereince)
79. Freud stressed the role of _____in shaping our perosnalities
80. According to Freud, unconscious thoughts are often revealed by
81. Sigmund Freud's appraoch to psycholotherapy is known as Psycholanalysis
82. Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Carl Jung, Otto Rank, and Erik Erikson would be considered Neo-Freudians
83. Which of the following statements concerning psycholdynamic psychology is TRUE?
84. You see psychologist and tell her that you are feeling depressed. the psychologies talks to you about your past and attempts to link your present situation....... the psychologist would probably belong to which school of psychology?
85. Which of the following would be considered humanistic psychologists? Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
86. Humanistic theories emphasize free will and self-determination
87. Which of the following is characteristic of a humanistic approach to the study of behavior? emphasis on teh importance of subjective factors, such as one's self-image
88. According to the _____ view, the need for love, self-esteem, belonging, self-expression, creativity, and spirituality are as important as biological needs. humanistic
89. Frame of reference is a mental perspective used for evaluating events
90. karen sees herself as attractive, extroverted, and dependable. According to the humanistic approach, karen's description ofherself would be referred to as her self-image
91. Humanists seek to understand how people perceive themselves and experience the world
92. maslow proposed a need to develop ones' potential and be the best one can be, whcih he called self-actualization
93.you see a psychologist...you tell her you depressed. She talks to you...goals you have for yourself, about your image of yourself, and aobut he choices you make in your life.... This psychologist would probably belong to the ____school of psychology. humanistic
Created by: Josh013092