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PHM1000 De More7

PHM1000 Pharmacy Technician - Chapter 7: Routes/Formulations De More

Intra into
Intravenous into the the venous (circulatory) system
intraocular into the eye; PARENTERAL; solutions, suspensions, ointments, inserts
intracardiac into the heart
intraarterial into the artery
intrspinal into the spine
intraosseous into the bone
intraarticular into the joint
intrarespiratory into the lung
Enteral anything involving the alimentary tract (mouth to anus)
Parenteral any sites of administration besides the enteral tract. (i.e. vaginal)
Oral ENTERAL; Tablets, Capsules, Bulk Powders, Solutions, Suspensions, Elixirs, Syrups, Emulsions
Buccal ENTERAL; Tablets, Solutions
Sublingual ENTERAL; Tablets, Lozenges
Rectal ENTERAL; Solutions, Ointments, Suppositories
intranasal PARENTERAL; solutions, suspensions, sprays, aerosols, inhalers, powders
inhalation PARENTERAL; solutions, aerosols, powders,
IV/IM/ID intravenous/intramuscular/intradermal; PARENTERAL; solutions, suspensions, emulsions
dermal solutions, tinctures, collodions, liniments, suspensions, ointments, creams, gels, lotions, pastes, plasters, powders, aerosols, transdermal patches
subcutaneous PARENTERAL; solutions, suspensions, emulsions, implants
vaginal PARENTERAL; solutions, ointments, creams, aerosol foams; powders; suppositories, tablets, IUDs
pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. 7 is neutral. Higher numbers = more alkaline (8-14) Lower numbers = more acidic (1-6).
stomach acid pH of 1-2
enteric coated coating on tablets that delays disintegration of a tablet until it reaches the higher pH of the intestine.
disintegration breaking apart of a tablet into smaller pieces
dissolution when the smaller pieces of a disintegrated tablet dissolve in a solution
modified release oral formulations that release the drug so a longer duration of action occurs. SR (sustained release) SA (slow acting), ER/XR (extended release) PA (prolonged action), CR (controlled/continuous release) TR (time release) LA (long acting)
solutions clear liquid made up of one or more substances dissolved in a solvent(Aqueous solutions)
syrups concentrated or nearly saturated solution of sucrose in water, contain less than 10% of alcohol.
nonaqueous solution contain solvent other then water (glycerin, alcohol, propylene glycol can be used in oral solutions)
elixirs lear sweetened, hydroalcoholic liquids, less sweet and viscous than syrup,alcohol content 5-40%
spirits alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances with alcohol content 62-85%. Typically used for flavoring effect (Peppermint Spirit) but can be used for medicinal purposes (Spirit of Camphor)
tinctures nonvolatile substances:10gm drugs in 100ml of solutions; Ex: Tincture of Iodine
suspensions formulations in which the drug is not completely dissolved in the solvent.
emulsions mixture of two or more immiscible (unblendable) liquids; "Oil and Water don't mix"; an emulsifier is is used to formulate a homogenous mixture between the two ingredients
creaming one of two distinct phases of separation that occurs with emulsions; occurs when dispersed droplets merge and rise to the top or fall to the bottom of the emulsion; redispersed by shaking
coalescence breaking or cracking; irreversable seperation of dispersed phase (emulsions)
gelling agents increase the viscosity or thickness of the medium in which they are placed (GELS)
water soluble able to dissolve in water
sublingual under the tongue
hemorrhoid painful swollen veins in the anal/rectal area
IV intravenous; 16-20 gauge/1-1.5" needle length
IM intramuscular; 19-22 gauge/1-1.5" needle length
SC/SQ subcutaneous; 24-27 gauge/ 3/8 - 1" needle length
ID intradermal; 25-26 gauge/ 3/8" needle length
necrosis increase in cell death
buffer system ingredients in a formulation designed to control pH
sterile free of all microorganisms, both harmful and harmless
aqueous water based
diluent solvent that dissolves a freeze dried powder or dilutes a solution
infusion gradual injection of an intravenous solution into a patient
syringeability the ease with which a suspension can be drawn from a container into a syringe
thrombus blood clot; complication that can occur from IV administration
phlebitis inflammation of veins; complication that can occur from IV administration
air emboli occurs when air is injected into the veins; complication that can occur from IV administration
particulate matter small pieces of material (ex: glass from ampule or vial) that can get through filtration in an IV line and cause complications if it gets into venous system
infusion pumps used to ensure a constant delivery rate
elastometric pumps useful for intermittent or very slow, continuous infusions
IM Injection sites gluteal maximus, deltoid (upper arm) and thigh muscles
IM Injection formulations solutions, suspensions, colloids in aqueous and oil based solvents, oil-in-water emulsions or water-in-oil emulsions
oil in water emulsions an oil dispersed in water; mix readily with water based liquids (ex: milk. fat globules dispersed in water)
water in oil emulsions water based mixed in oil; mix readily with oil based liquids (ex: cod liver oil)
z-tract injection method of injecting medication into a large muscle using a needle and syringe; seals the medication deeply within the muscle and allows no exit path back into the subcutaneous tissue and skin. Used for medicines that stain the skin or irritate tissues.
SC injection sites lower abdomen, front of thigh, back, back of upper arm
biocompatability not irritating; does not promote infection or abcess
wheal raised or blister-like area on the skin caused by an ID (intradermal) injection
normal volume of tears estimated to be 7 to 10 microliters
normal commercial volume 50 microliters
% of dose lost from overflow of the eye 80% Only about 20% of a dose is actually absorbed into the eye.
Tear production 2 microliters per minute; turnover is every 2 to 3 minutes
Capacity of adult nasal cavity 20ml
inspiration breathing in
MDI metered dose inhalers
percutaneous absorption absorption of drugs through the skin, often for systemic effect
Rules of percutaneous absorption more drug is absorbed when applied to larger area; greater amount of rubbing in, the greater the absorption; longer the contact with the skin, the greater absorption; formulations or dressings that increase skin hydration generally improves absorption
stratum corneum outermost layer of epidurmis
gels dispersions of solid drugs in jelly like vehicle
lotions suspensions of solid drugs in an aqueous vehicle
ointments drugs incorporated into a base (such as petrolatum, polyethylene glycols)
colloidions liquid preparations of pyroxylin (pulpy or cottonlike polymer) dissolved in a solvent mixture of ether and alcohol (ex: Liquid bandages)
liniments alcoholic or oil based solutions, generally applied by rubbing (ex: absorbine jr.)
pastes used for protective action; more solid materials than ointments, stiffer and less penetrating
plasters provide prolonged contact at application site; solid or semisolid (common backing material: cotton, moleskin, paper)
powders mixture of drug and inactive base (ex cornstarch)
transdermal systems patches, tapes, gauzes used to deliver drugs through skin for a systemic effect
glycerinated gelatin base used to make suppositories; good for prolonged local effects because it softens slowly; preferred for vaginal suppositories
polyethylene glycols used in suppositories; dissolve when inserted into a body cavity, which allows for storage without refrigeration
solid formulations tablets, capsules, bulk powder
modified released formulations primary goal is to reduce the amount of doses; many terms are used to identify these drugs: ER/XR (extended release) prolonged action (PA), sustained release (SR) controlled/continued release (CR) time release (TR) and long acting (LA)
local effect drug activity is at site of administration
systemic effect drug introduced into the venous (circulatory) system and carried to site of activity
enteral routes oral, buccal, sublingual, rectal
enteral dosage forms tablets, capsules, bulk powders, solutions, suspensions, elixers, syrups, emulsions, lozenges, ointments, suppositores; (know what forms can be used where)
parenteral route intraocular, intranasal, inhalation, intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, dermal, dermal, subcutaneous, vaginal
parenteral dosage forms solutions, suspensions, ointments, inserts, gels, aerosols, powders, colloids, emulsions, tinctures, liniments, creams, lotions, pastes, plasters, transdermal patches, IUDs (IMPORTANT: know what forms can be used where!)
sublingual & buccal route of administration used when rapid action is desired; some limitations include bitter taste and conditions which may inhibit patient from taking medications orally
rectal administration given for local effect or to avoid degradation; limitations include: many patients do not prefer rectal dosage forms, seen as inconvenient; absorption is erratic and unpredictable
parenteral administration used becausee: poor absorption of oral drug, med degraded by stomach/intestinal acids, rapid drug response desired, patient is unconscious/unable to take the drug; disadvantages: cost/skills to administer, risks of administration or if reaction occurs
injection independent opthalmic, intranasal, inhalation, dermal, vaginal, otic
injection dependent intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous, epidural, intrathecal
buffer system ingredients in a formulation designed to control the pH
sterile bacteria-free
complications that can occur from IV administration thrombus, phlebitis, air emboli, particulate material
IM injection formulations solutions, suspensions, oil-in-water emulsions, water-in-oil emulsions and colloids in aqueous and oil-based solvents
subcutaneous injection sites lower abdomen, back of arm, front thigh, upper back
viscosity thickness of liquid
wheal caused by an ID inhection; raied blister-like area on the skin
ways intranasal dosage is lost amounts of drug are swallowed; normal mucous flow remove drug; enzymes in mucosa metabolize certain drugs
recommended period for intranasal administration 3 to 5 days; prolonged used can lead to swelling, which can cause a rebound of symptons previously intended to be treated by the nasal spray.
syringability ease with which a suspension can be be drawn from a container into a syringe
injectability ease of flow when a suspension is injected into a patient
infusion gradual intravenous injection of a volume of fluid into a patient ; generally a large volume (i.e. electrolyte solution)
infusion pumps administration devises used for the administration of certain medications (such as analgesics or insulin) at a controlled rate
Created by: MrsAFlaherty



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