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Sociology chapter 8

Vocabularymeaning
Anomie Durkheim’s term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
. Anomie theory of deviance Robert Merton’s theory that explains deviance as an adaptation either of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment, or both.
Conformity Going along with peers’ individuals of our own status, who have no special right to direct our behavior.
Control theory A view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society’s norms
Crime A violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties.
Cultural transmission A school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions.
Deviance Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
Differential association A theory of deviance proposed by Edwin Sutherland that holds that violation rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts
Formal social control Social control carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administration, and employers.
Informal social control Social control carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule
. Labeling theory An approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed, as deviants while other engaging in the same behavior are not.
Law Governmental social control
Obedience Compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
Organized crime The work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises, including the smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, and gambling.
Professional criminal A person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals.
Routine activities theory The notion that criminal victimization increases when there is a convergence of motivated offenders and vulnerable targets.
Sanctions Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.
Social constructionist perspective An approach to deviance that emphasizes the role of culture in the creation of the deviant identity.
. Social control The techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
Societal reaction approach Another name for labeling theory.
. Stigma A label used to devalue members of deviant social group
Victimization surveys questionnaires or interviews give to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victims of crime.
Victimless crime A term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services.
White Collar crime Crimes committed by affluent individuals or corporations in the course of their daily business activities.
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